Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 17, Issue 2, pp 169–180

Dietary Phytoestrogen, Serum Enterolactone and Risk of Prostate Cancer: The Cancer Prostate Sweden Study (Sweden)

Authors

    • Department of Medical Epidemiology and BiostatisticsKarolinska Institutet
  • Åsa Klint
    • Department of Medical Epidemiology and BiostatisticsKarolinska Institutet
  • Ellen T. Chang
    • Department of Medical Epidemiology and BiostatisticsKarolinska Institutet
  • Rino Bellocco
    • Department of Medical Epidemiology and BiostatisticsKarolinska Institutet
  • Jan-Erik Johansson
    • Department of UrologyÖrebro University Hospital and Center for Assessment of Medical Technology
  • Swen-Olof Andersson
    • Department of UrologyÖrebro University Hospital and Center for Assessment of Medical Technology
  • Satu-Maarit Heinonen
    • Institute for Preventive Medicine, Nutrition and Cancer, Folkhälsan Research Center and Division of Clinical ChemistryUniversity of Helsinki
  • Herman Adlercreutz
    • Institute for Preventive Medicine, Nutrition and Cancer, Folkhälsan Research Center and Division of Clinical ChemistryUniversity of Helsinki
  • Hans-Olov Adami
    • Department of Medical Epidemiology and BiostatisticsKarolinska Institutet
  • Henrik Grönberg
    • Department of Radiation Sciences/OncologyUmeå University
  • Katarina Augustsson Bälter
    • Department of Medical Epidemiology and BiostatisticsKarolinska Institutet
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10552-005-0342-2

Cite this article as:
Hedelin, M., Klint, Å., Chang, E.T. et al. Cancer Causes Control (2006) 17: 169. doi:10.1007/s10552-005-0342-2

Abstract

Objective

Based on evidence that phytoestrogens may protect against prostate cancer, we evaluated the associations between serum enterolactone concentration or dietary phytoestrogen intake and risk of prostate cancer.

Methods

In our Swedish population-based case-control study, questionnaire-data were available for 1,499 prostate cancer cases and 1,130 controls, with serum enterolactone levels in a sub-group of 209 cases and 214 controls. Unconditional logistic regression was performed to estimate multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations with risk of prostate cancer.

Results

High intake of food items rich in phytoestrogens was associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer. The OR comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of intake was 0.74 (95% CI: 0.57–0.95; p-value for trend: 0.01). In contrast, we found no association between dietary intake of total or individual lignans or isoflavonoids and risk of prostate cancer. Intermediate serum levels of enterolactone were associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer. The ORs comparing increasing quartiles of serum enterolactone concentration to the lowest quartile were, respectively, 0.28 (95% CI: 0.15–0.55), 0.63 (95% CI: 0.35–1.14) and 0.74 (95% CI: 0.41–1.32).

Conclusions

Our results support the hypothesis that certain foods high in phytoestrogens are associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer.

Keywords

DietEnterolactoneEpidemiologyLignansPhytoestrogenProstate cancer

Abbreviations

BMI

body mass index

CI

confidence interval

MAT

matairesinol

OR

odds ratio

PSA

prostate-specific antigen

SECO

secoisolariciresinol

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006