A prospective study of diet and prostate cancer in Japanese men Article Received: 26 November 2003 Accepted: 01 June 2004 DOI:
10.1007/s10552-004-1683-y Cite this article as: Allen, N.E., Sauvaget, C., Roddam, A.W. et al. Cancer Causes Control (2004) 15: 911. doi:10.1007/s10552-004-1683-y Abstract Background and aims. It has been hypothesized that some aspect of a traditional ‘Asian’ diet, that is low in animal products and high in soya, may be associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. This study aimed to examine the association between dietary intake and prostate cancer risk among 18,115 men in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, using prospective data from the Life Span Study. Methods: Subjects completed a food-frequency questionnaire at baseline (1963, 1965 and/or 1979) and were followed for incident prostate cancer until the end of 1996. During this time, 196 incident prostate cancer cases were identified after 252,602 person-years of observation. Poisson regression was used to calculate incidence rates for each dietary factor after adjustment for age, calendar period, city of residence, radiation dose and education level. Results: Fish intake was significantly associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer; men who consumed fish more than four times per week had a 54 increased risk of developing prostate cancer compared with men who ate fish less than twice per week (RR=1.54; 95 CI, 1.03–2.31). No other food items, including soya products, were significantly associated with prostate cancer risk. Conclusions: These data suggest that dietary factors may not be strong determinants of prostate cancer in these Japanese men, although the increased risk associated with a high consumption of fish warrants further study. Keywords prostate cancer diet fish soya atomic-bomb survivors Japan References Parkin, DM, Whelan, SL, Ferlay, J, Teppo, L, Thomas, DB 2002Cancer incidence in five continents IARC Lyon Google Scholar Breslow, N, Chan, CW, Dhom, G, et al. 1977 Latent carcinoma of prostate of autopsy in seven areas Int J Cancer 20 680 688 Google Scholar Uchida, K, Shimazui, T, Ohtani, M, et al. 1993 Histopathological comparison of stage A prostatic adenocarcinoma in Japan and the United States Jap J Urol 84 1119 1126 Google Scholar
Ferlay J, Bray F, Pisani P, Parkin DM (2001) Globocan 2000: Cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence worldwide, version 1.0. http://www-dep.iarc.fr/globocan/globocan.html (accessed June 2003).
Kolonel, LN 2001 Fat, meat, and prostate cancer Epidemiol Revs 23 72 81 Google Scholar World Cancer Research Fund 1997Food, Nutrition and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective American Institute for Cancer Research Washington DC USA Google Scholar Hebert, JR, Hurley, TG, Olendzki, BC, Teas, J, Ma, Y, Hampl, JS 1998 Nutritional and socioeconomic factors in relation to prostate cancer mortality: a cross-national study J Natl Cancer Inst 90 1637 1647 Google Scholar Fournier, DB, Erdman, JWJ, Gordon, GB 1998 Soy, its components, and cancer prevention: a review of the in vitro, animal, and human data Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 7 1055 1065 Google Scholar Bylund, A, Zhang, JX, Bergh, A, et al. 2000 Rye bran and soy protein delay growth and increase apoptosis of human LNCaP prostate adenocarcinoma in nude mice Prostate 42 304 314 Google Scholar Landstrom, M, Zhang, JX, Hallmans, G, et al. 1998 Inhibitory effects of soy and rye diets on the development of Dunning R3327 prostate adenocarcinoma in rats Prostate 36 151 161 Google Scholar Jacobsen, BK, Knutsen, SF, Fraser, GE 1998 Does high soy milk intake reduce prostate cancer incidence? The Adventist Health Study (United States) Cancer Causes Control 9 553 557 Google Scholar Lee, MM, Wang, RT, Hsing, AW, Gu, FL, Wang, T, Spitz, M 1998 Case–control study of diet and prostate cancer in China Cancer Causes Control 9 545 552 Google Scholar Severson, RK, Nomura, AM, Grove, JS, Stemmermann, GN 1989 A prospective study of demographics, diet, and prostate cancer among men of Japanese ancestry in Hawaii Cancer Res 49 1857 1860 Google Scholar Preston, DL, Kato, H, Kopecky, K, Fujita, S 1987 Studies of the mortality of A–bomb survivors. 8. Cancer mortality, 1950–1982 Radiat Res 111 151 178 Google Scholar RERF 1978Mail questionnaire survey for epidemiologic data on the Life Span Study extended sample, 1978. Report No. RP 14–78 Radiation Effects Research Foundation Hiroshima Google Scholar Sauvaget, C, Allen, NE, Hayashi, M, Spencer, E, Nagano, J 2002 Validation of a food frequency questionnaire in the Hiroshima/Nagasaki Life Span Study J Epidemiol 12 394 401 Google Scholar Roesch, WC 1987US–Japan joint reassessment of atomic bomb radiation dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Final Report, Vol 1. Radiation Effects Research Foundation Hiroshima Google Scholar Mabuchi, K, Soda, M, Ron, E, et al. 1994 Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part I: Use of the tumor registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for incidence studies Radiat Res 137 S1 S16 Google Scholar Sposto, R, Preston, DL 1992Correcting for Catchment Area Non-residency in Studies based on Tumor-registry-based Cohort Studies Radiation Effects Research Foundation Hiroshima, Japan Google Scholar
R Development Core Team (2003) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria. http://www.R-project.org.
Hsing, AW, McLaughlin, JK, Schuman, LM, et al. 1990 Diet, tobacco use, and fatal prostate cancer: results from the Lutheran Brotherhood Cohort Study Cancer Res 50 6836 6840 Google Scholar Key, TJ, Silcocks, PB, Davey, GK, Appleby, PN, Bishop, DT 1997 A case–control study of diet and prostate cancer Br J Cancer 76 678 687 Google Scholar Schuurman, AG, Brandt, PA, Dorant, E, Goldbohm, RA 1999 Animal products, calcium and protein and prostate cancer risk in The Netherlands Cohort Study Br J Cancer 80 1107 1113 Google Scholar Terry, P, Lichtenstein, P, Feychting, M, Ahlbom, A, Wolk, A 2001 Fatty fish consumption and risk of prostate cancer Lancet 357 1764 1766 Google Scholar Augustsson, K, Michaud, DS, Rimm, EB, et al. 2003 A prospective study of intake of fish and marine fatty acids and prostate cancer Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 12 64 67 Google Scholar Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 1997Review of the state of world aquaculture. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 886 FIRI/C886 (Rev.1) FAO Rome Google Scholar International Agency for Research on Cancer 1993IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Vol. 58. Beryllium, Cadmium, Mercury, and Exposures in the Glass Manufacturing Industry IARC Lyon Google Scholar Strom, SS, Yamamura, Y, Duphorne, CM, et al. 1999 Phytoestrogen intake and prostate cancer: a case–control study using a new database Nutr Cancer 33 20 25 Google Scholar Lee, MM, Lin Gomez, S, Chang, JS, Wey, M, Wang, RT, Hsing, AW 2003 Soy and isoflavone consumption in relation to prostate cancer risk in China Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 12 665 668 Google Scholar The Research Group for Population-based Cancer Registration in Japan 2001 Cancer incidence and incidence rates in Japan in 1996: Estimates based on data from 10 population-based cancer registries Jap J Clinical Oncol 31 410 414 Google Scholar
World Health Organisation (2001) World Health Statistics Annual, WHO Mortality Database. http://www.who.int/whosis (accessed June 2003).
Foundation for Promotion of Cancer Research (2001) Cancer statistics in Japan http://www.ncc.go.jp/en/statistics/2001/ tables.html (accessed June 2003).
Sauvaget, C, Nagano, J, Hayashi, M, Spencer, E, Shimizu, Y, Allen, NE 2003 Vegetables and fruit intake and cancer mortality in the Hiroshima/Nagasaki Life Span Study Br J Cancer 88 689 694 Google Scholar Sauvaget, C, Nagano, J, Allen, NE, Grant, E, Beral, V 2003 Intake of animal products and stroke mortality in the Hiroshima/Nagasaki Life Span Study Int J Epidemiol 32 536 543 Google Scholar Copyright information
© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004