Anderson, J.C., D.W. Gerbing. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin
Andreoli, N. & Lefkowitz, J. (2009) Individual and organizational antecedents of misconduct in organizations. Journal of Business Ethics
, 85: 309-332.CrossRef
Asparouhov, T. & Muthén, B. (2009). Exploratory structural equation modeling. Structural Equation Modeling
, 16, 397-438.CrossRef
Avolio, B. J. & Walumbwa, F. O. & Weber, T. J. (2009). Leadership: Current theories, research, and future directions. The Annual Review of Psychology,
Babbie, E. (2004). The practice of social research, 10th ed. Belmont: Thomson.
Bansal, P.& Clelland, I. (2004). Talking trash: Legitimacy, impression management, and unsystematic risk in the context of the natural environment. Academy of Management Journal
Barbuto, J. E. & Wheeler, D. W. (2006). Scale development and construct clarification of servant leadership. Group & Organization Management
Bass, B. M. (1985) Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Basic Books.
Bass, B. M. & Steidlmeier, P. (1999) Ethics, character, and authentic transformational leadership behavior. The Leadership Quarterly
, 10, 181-217.CrossRef
Bellah, R. N. (1985). Habits of the heart. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Bolden & Gosling. (2006). Leadership competencies: Time to change the tune? Leadership
. 2(2), 147-163.CrossRef
Brown, M. E. & Trevino, L. K. (2006). Ethical leadership: A review and future directions. The Leadership Quarterly.
Bugenhagen, M. J.: 2006, Antecedents of Transactional, Transformational, and Servant Leadership: A Constructive-Development Theory Approach. Dissertation Abstracts International (UMI No. 3238409).
Burns, J. M. (1978) Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.
Calabrese, R. L., Roberts, B. (2001) The Promise Forsaken: Neglecting the Ethical Implications of Leadership. The International Journal of Education Management, 15(6): 267-275CrossRef
Carmines, E. G. & Zeller, R. A. (1979) Reliability and validity assessment. Beverly Hills: Sage.
Chang, G. and M. Diddams: 2009, ‘Hubris or Humility: Cautions Surrounding the Construct and Self-Definition of Authentic Leadership,’ in Academy of Management Proceedings
Chen, L. Y. & Barnes, F. B. (2008). The effect of servant leadership to customer relationship management implementation. Journal of International Business & Economics, vol 8, 69-79.
Chen, F. F., Sousa, K. H. & West, S. G. (2005). Testing measurement invariance of second-order factor models. Structural Equation Model
. 12, 471-492.CrossRef
Dannhauser, Z. and A. B. Boshoff: 2006, ‘The Relationships Between Servant Leadership, Trust, Team Commitment and Demographic Variables’, http://www.regent.edu/acad/sls/publications/conference_proceedings/servant_leadership_roundtable/2006/pdf/dannhauser_boshoff.pdf
. Retrieved 1/10/20.10
De Hoogh, A. H. B. & De Hartog, D. N. (2008) Ethical and despotic leadership, relationships with leader’s social responsibility, top management team effectiveness and subordinates’ optimism: A multi-method study. The Leadership Quarterly
, 19, 297-311.CrossRef
Dennis, R. S.: 2004, Servant Leadership Theory: Development of the Servant Leadership Assessment Instrument. Dissertation Abstracts International (UMI No. 3133544).
Dennis, R. S. & Bocarnea, M. (2005). Development of the servant leadership assessment Instrument. Leadership & Organizational Development Journal. 26, 7/8, 600-615.
Dennis, R. & Winston, B. E. (2003). A factor analysis of page and wong’s servant leadership instrument. Leadership & Organization Development Journal
. 24/8, 455-459.CrossRef
Dickson, M. W., Smith, D. B., Grojean, M. W., & Ehrhart, M. (2001). Ethical climate: The result of interactions between leadership, leader values, and follower values. Leadership Quarterly
, 12, 1-21.CrossRef
Dienesch, R. M. & Liden, R. C. (1986) Leader-member exchange model of leadership: A critique and further development. Academy of Management Review, Vol 11, No 3, 618-634.
Ehrhart, M. G. (2004). Leadership and procedural justice climate as antecedents of unit-level organizational citizenship behaviors. Personnel Psychology
. Spring 57, 1, 61-94.CrossRef
Farling, M. L., Stone, A. G., Winston, B. E. (1999). Servant Leadership: Setting the Stage for Empirical Research. The Journal of Leadership Studies 6(1/2): 49–72CrossRef
Fry, L. W. (2003) Toward a theory of spiritual leadership. The Leadership Quarterly
, 14, 693-727.CrossRef
Graen, G., Liden, R. C., & Hoel, W. (1982) Role of leadership in the employee withdrawal process. Journal of Applied Psychology
, 67, 868-872.CrossRef
Graham, J. W. (1991). Servant-leadership in organizations: inspirational and moral. Leadership Quarterly
, 2(2), 105-119.CrossRef
Graham, J. W. (1995). Leadership, moral development and citizenship behavior. Business Ethics Quarterly
Greenleaf, R. K.: 1970/1991, The Servant as a Leader (Robert K Greenleaf Center for Servant Leadership, Indianapolis, IN).
Greenleaf, R. K.: 1972/2009, The Institution as Servant (Robert K Greenleaf Center for Servant Leadership, Indianapolis, IN).
Hale, J. & Fields, D. (2007). Exploring servant leadership across cultures: A study of followers in Ghana and the US. Leadership
vol 3(4): 397-417.CrossRef
Hambrick, D. C. (2007). Upper echelons theory: An update. Academy of Management Review
, Vol. 32, No. 2, 334-343.CrossRef
Hambrick, D. C., Mason, P. A. (1984) Upper echelons: The organization as a reflection of its top managers. Academy of Management Review, 9(2): 193-206.
Irving, J. A. and G. J. Longbotham: 2006, ‘Team Effectiveness and Six Essential Servant Leadership Themes: A Regression Model Based on Items in the organizational Leadership Assessment,’ http://www.regent.edu/acad/sls/publications/conference_proceedings/servant_leadership_roundtable/2006/pdf/irving_longbotham.pdf
. Retrieved 1/6/10.
Jenkins, M. and A. C. Stewart: 2008, Enhancing Nurse Job Satisfaction: The Importance of a Servant Leader Orientation in Health Care Management. Paper Presented at Academy of Management Meeting, Atlanta, GA.
Johnson, C. E. (2009). Meeting the ethical challenges of leadership: Casting light or shadow, 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Jonsson, S., H.R. Greve, T. Fujiwara-Greve. (2009). Undeserved loss: The spread of legitimacy loss to innocent organizations in response to reported corporate deviance. Administration Science Quarterly
Joseph, E. E. & Winston, B. E. (2005). A correlation of servant leadership, leader trust, and organizational trust. Leadership & Organization Development Journal
. 26(1/2): 6-22.
Kalton, G. and D. Kasprzyk: 1982, ‘Imputing for Missing Survey Responses’, in 1982 Proceedings of the Section on Survey Research Methods (American Statistical Assn).
Kuhnert, K. W. & Lewis, P. (1987) Transactional and transformational leadership: A constructive/developmental analysis. Academy of Management Review, Vol 12, No 4, 648-657.
Landy, F. L. (1985) Psychology of work behavior. Homewood: Dorsey Press.
Laub, J. A.: 1999, Assessing the Servant Organization: Development of the Servant Organizational Leadership (Sola)Instrument. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Florida Atlantic University.
Lawrence, P. and Nohria, N. (2002). Driven: How human nature shapes our choices. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Liden, R. C. Wayne, S. J., Zhao. H., & D. Henderson. (2008). Servant leadership: Development of a multidimensional measure and multi-level assessment. Leadership Quarterly
. 19, 161-177.CrossRef
Martin, K. D., and Cullen, J. B. (2006). Continuities and extensions of ethical climate theory: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Business Ethics
. 69: 175-194.CrossRef
Merton, R.K. (1969). The social nature of leadership. American Journal of Nursing,
69 (12), 2614-2618.CrossRef
Morgan, G., Ryu, K., & Mirvis, P. (2009). Leading corporate citizenship: Governance, structure, systems. Corporate Governance
, Vol 9 No 1, 39-49.CrossRef
Mulki, J. P., Jaramillo, J. F., & Locander, W. B. (2009). Critical role of leadership on ethical climate and salesperson behaviors. Journal of Business Ethics
. 86: 125-141.CrossRef
Neubert, M. J., Carlson, D. S., Kacmar, K. M., Roberts, J. A., & Chonko, L. B. (2009). The virtuous influence of ethical leadership behavior: Evidence from the field. Journal of Business Ethics
. 90: 157-170.CrossRef
Oliver, C. (1991). Strategic responses to institutional processes. Academy of Management Review, 16, 145-179.
Ostrem, L. M.: 2006, Servant-Leadership and Work-Related Outcomes: A Multi-Level Model. Dissertation Abstracts International (UMI No. 3208082).
Page, D. & Wong, P. T. P. (2000). A conceptual framework for measuring servant-Leadership. In Adjibolosoo S. (Ed.), The Human Factor in Shaping the Course of History and Development
, 69-110. Lanham MD: University Press of America.
Parolini, J. L.: 2005, ‘Investigating the Relationships Among Emotional Intelligence, Servant Leadership Behaviors and Servant Leadership Culture’, http://www.regent.edu/acad/sls/publications/conference_proceedings/servant_leadership_roundtable/2005/pdf/parolini_invest.pdf
. Retrieved 1/6/10.
Patterson, K. A.: 2003, Servant Leadership: A Theoretical Model. Dissertation Abstracts International (UMI No. 3082719).
Podsakoff, P.M., S.B. MacKenzie, J-Y. Lee, N.P. Podsakoff. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. J. Applied
Polleys, M. S. (2002). One university’s response to the anti-leadership vaccine: Developing servant leaders. Journal of Leadership Studies
, Winter, 8, 3, 117-130.CrossRef
Richardson, H.A., Simmering, M.J, & Sturman, M. C. (2009). A tale of three perspectives: Examining post hoc statistical techniques for detection and correction of common method variance. Organizational Research Methods
Russell, R. F. & Stone, A. G. (2002). A review of servant leadership attributes: Developing a practical model. Leadership & Organizational Development Journal. 23, ¾, 145-157.
Schminke, M., Arnaud, A., & Kuenzi, M. (2007) The power of ethical work climates. Organizational Dynamics
, Vol 36, No 2, 171-186.CrossRef
Sendjaya, S. & Sarros, J. C. (2002). Servant leadership: Its origin, development, and application in organizations. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies
9 (2), 57-64.CrossRef
Sendjaya, S, Sarros, J. and Santora, C. (2008). Defining and measuring servant leadership behaviour in organizations. Journal of Management Studies
45 (2): 402-424.CrossRef
Sheehan, K. (2002) Online research methodology: Reflections and speculations. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 3(1), 56-61.
Smith, B. N., Montagno, R. V., & Kuzmenko, T. N. (2004). Transformational and servant leadership: Content and contextual comparisons. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies.
Vol 10, No 4, 80-91.CrossRef
Spears, L., ed. (1995). Reflections on leadership: How Robert k. Greenleaf’s theory of servant-leadership influenced today’s top management thinkers. New York: John Wiley and Sons Inc,
Spears, L., ed. (2002). Focus on leadership: servant-leadership for the 21st century. New York: John Wiley and Sons Inc
Spears, L. C. (2004). Practicing servant leadership. Leader to Leader
, 34(1) 7-11.CrossRef
Stone, A. G., Russell. R. F., & Patterson, K. (2004). Transformational vs Servant Leadership: a difference in Leader Focus. Leadership & Organization Development Journal
25 (4) 349-361.CrossRef
Trochim, William. (2001). The Research Methods Knowledge Base, 2nd ed. Cincinnati: Atomic Dog Publishing.
Vidaver-Cohen, D.: 1993, ‘Creating and Maintaining Ethical Work Climates: Implications for Managing Change’, Business Ethics Quarterly
3(4), 343–358 (Best Paper 1992, Society for Business Ethics).
Vidaver-Cohen, D.: 1995, ‘Creating Ethical Work Climates: A Socio-Economic Perspective’, Journal of Socio-Economics
24(2), 317–343 (Best Paper 1994, Society for the Advancement of Socio-Economics).
Vidaver-Cohen, D. (1998). Moral climate in business firms: A conceptual framework for analysis and change. Journal of Business Ethics 17 (11), 1211
Waldman, D. A., Siegel, D. S., & Javidan, M. (2006). Components of CEO transformational leadership and corporate social responsibility. Journal of Management Studies
, 43:8, 1703-1725.CrossRef
Walumbwa, F. O., D. Mayer, P. Wang, H. Wang and K. M. Workman: 2010, Opening the Black Box: Linking Ethical Leadership to Employee Performance. Paper Presented at the Academy of Management Meeting, Montreal, QC, Canada.
Washington, R. R.: 2007, Empirical Relationships Between Servant, Transformational, and Transactional Leaders. Paper Presented at the Academy of Management Meeting, Phila, PA.
Washington, R. R. & Sutton, C. D., & Field, H. S. (2006). Individual differences in servant leadership: The roles of values and personality. Leadership & Organization Development Journal
. Vol. 27, No. 8, 700-716.CrossRef
Whittington, J. L., B. A. Frank, R. C. May, B. Murray and V. L. Goodwin: 2006, Servant Leadership in Organizations: Scale Development and Validation. Paper Presented at the Academy of Management Meeting, Atlanta, GA.
Williams L.J., Buckley, M.R. and Cote J.A. (1989). Lack of method variance in self-report affect and perceptions at work: Reality or artifact? Journal of Applied Psychology
, 74(3) 462-468.CrossRef
Wong, P. T. P. and D. Page: 2003, ‘Servant Leadership: An Opponent-Process Model and the Revised Servant Leadership Profile,’ http://www.regent.edu/acad/sls/publications/conference_proceedings/servant_leadership_roundtable/2003pdf/wong_servant_leadership.pdf
. Retrieved 1/6/10.
Yukl, G. (2010). Leadership in organizations, 7th ed. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.