Managing Under Duress: Ethical Leadership, Social Capital and the Civilian Administration of the British Channel Islands During the Nazi Occupation, 1940–1945
- Paul Sanders
- … show all 1 hide
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
This article focuses on the collective leadership of the civilian authorities of the British Channel Islands during the Nazi Occupation (1940–1945), and draws lessons from their ethical performance. The first part of the article determines that local officials in the Channel Islands disposed of operative margins, but that – in the interest of collaboration – these were not always used to the full. This article then details institutional factors that contributed to commonalities between the two bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey, as they faced up to occupation. The second part of this article follows up with the dissimilarities, one of which is that Guernsey travelled further down the road to collaboration than her sister island. Social capital depletion is credited as being responsible for this; and this situation was further compounded by lack of ‘ethical leadership’. The final part explores the relationship between social capital and leadership ethics, suggesting that virtue serves as a catalyst for social capital stock in crisis situations. The core research outcome is that ethical leadership produces tangible efficiency and moral effects in situations of extreme duress (such as Nazi Occupation) where one could have expected very little or no scope for such a thing. This is an uplifting message that runs counter to scepticism as to the practical value of business ethics. Implications are drawn with regard to the challenge of reconciling MNE activities with the moral complexity posed by globalization.
Supplementary Material (0)
- Adler, P., Kwon, S.: 2002, ‘Social capital: prospects for a new concept’, Academy of Management Review, 27 (1), pp. 17-40. CrossRef
- Baron, R.: ‘Social Capital’, in C. Cooper (ed.), The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Management (Blackwell Publishing, Blackwell Reference Online), http://www.blackwellreference.com. Accessed 28 May 2009.
- Becker, G.: 2009, ‘Moral leadership in business’, Journal of International Business Ethics, 2 (1), pp. 7-21.
- Bennett, R.: 1999, Under the shadow of the swastika, (New York University Press, New York City).
- Bhagwati, J.: 2004, In defense of globalization, (Oxford University Press, New York).
- Bourdieu, P.: 1985, ‘The forms of capital’, in J. Richardson (ed.), Handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education, (Greenwood, New York).
- Broszat, M. and Fröhlich, E., (eds.): 1987, Alltag und Widerstand. Bayern im Nationalsozialismus, (Piper, München).
- Brown, M. and Trevino, L.: 2006, ‘Ethical leadership: a review and future directions’, The Leadership Quarterly, 17, pp. 595-616. CrossRef
- Brown, M., Trevino, L. and Harrison, D.: 2005, ‘Ethical leadership: a social learning perspective for construct development and testing, Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 97, pp. 117-134. CrossRef
- Bueno de Mesquita, B. and Downs, G.: 2005, ‘Development and democracy’, Foreign Affairs, 84 (5), pp. 77-86. CrossRef
- Cohen, F.: 2000, The Jews in the Channel Islands during the German Occupation 1940-1945, 2nd edition, (Jersey Heritage Trust, Jersey).
- Cruickshank, C.: 1975, The German Occupation of the Channel Islands, (Oxford University Press, London).
- Davies, P.: 2004, Dangerous liaisons: collaboration and World War Two, (Longman, Harlow).
- Den Hartog, D.: ‘Leading in a Global Context: Vision in Complexity’, in H. Lane, M. Maznevski, M. Mendenhall and J. Mcnett (eds.), The Blackwell Handbook of Global Management (Blackwell Publishing, Blackwell Reference Online), http://www.blackwellreference.com. Accessed 19 May 2009.
- Desjardins, J.: 1995, ‘Virtues and business ethics’, in Shaw, W., Barry, V. (eds.), Moral issues in business, 6th ed. (Wadsworth, Belmont), pp. 95-99
- Durlauf, S. and M. Fafchamps: 2004, ‘Social Capital’, Working Paper of the Centre for the Study of African Economies, 214, http://www.bepress.com/csae/paper214. Accessed 23 April 2010.
- Falla, F.: 1994 (reprint), The Silent War (Guernsey).
- Fauconnier, P, Piovezan, S. (2009), ‘Ecoles de commerce: l’éthique au programme’, Challenges, 193: 55–61.
- Forrest, R. and A. Kearns: 2001, ‘Social Cohesion, Social Capital and the Neighbourhood’, Urban Studies, 38 (12): 2125-2143. CrossRef
- Fowler, K. and Etchegary, H.: 2008, ‘Economic crisis and social capital: the story of two rural fishing communities’, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 8 (2), pp. 319-341. CrossRef
- Fukuyama, F.: 2001, ‘Social capital, civil society and development’, Third World Quarterly, 22 (1): 7-20. CrossRef
- Fukuyama, F.: 2002, ‘Social capital and development: the coming agenda’, SAIS Review, 22 (1), pp. 23-37. CrossRef
- Gadamer, H.: 1989, Truth and method, (Crossroad, New York).
- Gerlach, C. and Aly, G.: 2004, Das letzte Kapitel: der Mord an den ungarischen Juden 1944-45, (Fischer, Frankfurt).
- Gitsham, M.: 2009, What does the Shifting Landscape of Global Challenges Mean for the Leadership Qualities and Skills People in Our Organisations Require? (Abstract). Ashridge International Research Conference – Global Leadership, Global Ethics?, 15–17 May 2009.
- Harris, P.: 2001, ‘Machiavelli, political marketing and reinventing government’, European Journal of Marketing, 35 (9/10), pp. 1136-1154. CrossRef
- Kets de Vries, M., Engellau, E.: 2004, Are leaders born or are they made? The case of Alexander the Great (Karnac, London)
- Knight, G. and J. Smith: 2008, ‘The Global Compact and Its Critics: Activism, Power Relations, and Corporate Social Responsibility’, in J. Leatherman (ed.), Discipline and Punishment in Global Politics: Illusions of Control (Palgrave Macmillan).
- Maak, T.: 2007, ‘Responsible leadership, stakeholder engagement, and the emergence of social capital’, Journal of Business Ethics, 74 (4): 329–343. CrossRef
- Maguire, S.: 1997, ‘Business ethics: a compromise between politics and virtue’, Journal of Business Ethics, 16, pp. 1411-1418. CrossRef
- Mahoney, J.: 1998, ‘Editorial adieu: cultivating moral courage in business’, Business Ethics, 7 (4), pp. 187-192. CrossRef
- Martinez, C. and M. Soledad: 2005, ‘Los valores éticos del capital social y su influencia en el crecimiento económico’, Informacion Comercial Espanola Revista de Economia 823 (English summary).
- Mazzucato, V. and Niemeijer, D.: 2003, ‘Why do savings institutions differ within the same region? The role of environment and social capital in the creation of savings arrangements in Eastern Burkina Faso’, Oxford Development Studies, 31 (4), 519-529. CrossRef
- Melé, D.: 2003, ‘The challenge of humanistic management’, Journal of Business Ethics, 44, 77-88. CrossRef
- Murphy, J.: 2008, ‘People in business: context and character’. In: G. Flynn (ed.), Leadership and business ethics. Springer: New York, pp. 117-130 CrossRef
- Nooteboom, B.: 2007, ‘Social capital, institutions and trust’, Review of Social Economy, 65 (1), pp. 29-53. CrossRef
- Osgood, M. and Ong, B.: 2001, ‘Social capital formation and development in marginal communities, with reference to post-Soviet societies’, Progress in Development Studies, 3 (1), pp. 205-219.
- Pastoriza, D., Arino, M. and Ricart, J.: 2008, ‘Ethical managerial behavior as an antecedent of organizational social capital’, Journal of Business Ethics, 78, pp. 329-341. CrossRef
- Pastoriza, D., Arino, M. and Ricart, J.: 2009, ‘Creating an ethical work context: a pathway to generate social capital in the firm’, Journal of Business Ethics, 88, pp. 477-489. CrossRef
- Paxton, R. O.: 2001, Vichy France. Old Guard and New Order (reprint) (Columbia University Press, New York).
- Peukert, D.: 1982, Volksgenossen und Gemeinschaftsfreunde. Anpassung, Ausmerze und Aufbegehren unter dem Nationalsozialismus (Bund, Köln).
- Peukert, D.: 1984, Widerstand und ‘Resistenz’. Zu den Bänden V und VI der Publikation ‘Bayern in der NS-Zeit’, Archiv für Sozialgeschichte 24, 661–666
- Portes, A.: 1998, ‘Social capital: its origins and applications in modern sociology’, Annual Review of Sociology, 24, pp. 1-24. CrossRef
- Rothstein, B.: 2003, ‘Social capital, economic growth and quality of government: the causal mechanism’, New Political Economy, 8 (1), pp. 49-71. CrossRef
- Sanders, P.: 2004, The ultimate sacrifice, 2nd edition (Jersey Heritage Trust, Jersey).
- Sanders, P.: 2005, The British Channel Islands under German Occupation 1940-45, (Jersey Heritage Trust, Jersey).
- Santoro, M.: 2009, China 2020: How Western business can – and should – influence social and political change in the coming decade, (Cornell University Press, Ithaca, London).
- Semelin, J.: 1989, Sans armes face à Hitler. La résistance civile en Europe 1939-1943, (Payot, Paris).
- Slim, H.: 1997, Doing the right thing. Relief agencies, moral dilemmas and moral responsibility in political emergencies and war, (Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Uppsala).
- Small, M.: 2006, ‘A case for including business ethics and the humanities in management programs’, Journal of Business Ethics, 64, pp. 195-211. CrossRef
- Van Staveren, I.: 2003, ‘Beyond social capital in poverty research’, Journal of Economic Issues, 37 (2), 415-423.
- von Aufsess, H. M.: 1985, The von Aufsess Occupation Diary (Phillimore, Chichester).
- Willmot, L.: 2000, ‘The Channel Islands’, in Moore, B. (ed.): 2000, Resistance in Western Europe, (Berg, Oxford).
- Willmot, L.: 2003, ‘Noel McKinstry’, The Channel Islands Occupation Review, 31:25-30.
- Wood, A. and Wood, M.: 1955, Islands in danger, (Evans, London).
About this Article
- Managing Under Duress: Ethical Leadership, Social Capital and the Civilian Administration of the British Channel Islands During the Nazi Occupation, 1940–1945
Journal of Business Ethics
Volume 93, Issue 1 Supplement, pp 113-129
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer Netherlands
- Additional Links
- Channel Islands
- Nazi Occupation
- social capital
- ethical leadership
- Industry Sectors
- Paul Sanders (1)
- Author Affiliations
- 1. École SupÉrieure de Commerce Bourgogne, 29 rue Sambin, 21000, Dijon, France