Psychological Distress in U.S. Women Who Have Experienced False-Positive Mammograms
- Ismail JatoiAffiliated withDepartment of Surgery, National Naval Medical Center and the Uniformed Services University Email author
- , Kangmin ZhuAffiliated withUnited States Military Cancer Institute
- , Mona ShahAffiliated withUnited States Military Cancer Institute
- , William LawrenceAffiliated withAgency for Healthcare Research and Quality
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In the United States, approximately 10.7% of all screening mammograms lead to a false-positive result, but the overall impact of false-positives on psychological well-being is poorly understood.
Materials and methods
Data were analyzed from the 2000 U.S. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), the most recent national survey that included a cancer control module. Study subjects were 9,755 women who ever had a mammogram, of which 1,450 had experienced a false-positive result. Psychological distress was assessed using the validated K6 questionnaire and logistic regression was used to discern any association with previous false-positive mammograms.
In a multivariate analysis, women who had indicated a previous false-positive mammogram were more likely to report feeling sad (OR = 1.18, 95% CI, 1.03–1.35), restless (OR = 1.23, 95% CI, 1.08–1.40), worthless (OR = 1.27, 95% CI, 1.04–1.54), and finding that everything was an effort (OR = 1.27, 95% CI, 1.10–1.47). These women were also more likely to have seen a mental health professional in the 12 months preceding the survey (OR = 1.28, 95% CI, 1.03–1.58) and had a higher composite score on all items of the K6 scale (P < 0.0001), a reflection of increased psychological distress. Analyses by age and race revealed that, among women who had experienced false-positives, younger women were more likely to feel that everything was an effort, and blacks were more likely to feel restless.
In a random sampling of the U.S. population, women who had previously experienced false-positive mammograms were more likely to report symptoms of anxiety and depression.
Key wordsMammography False-positives Psychological distress
- Psychological Distress in U.S. Women Who Have Experienced False-Positive Mammograms
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Volume 100, Issue 2 , pp 191-200
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- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
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- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Surgery, National Naval Medical Center and the Uniformed Services University, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD, 20814, USA
- 2. United States Military Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, 20814, USA
- 3. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Bethesda, MD, 20814, USA