Structure Function Analysis of TwoScale Scalar Ramps. Part II: Ramp Characteristics and Surface Renewal Flux Estimation
 T. M. Shapland,
 A. J. McElrone,
 R. L. Snyder,
 K. T. Paw U
 … show all 4 hide
Rent the article at a discount
Rent now* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Get AccessAbstract
Ramp features in the turbulent scalar field are associated with turbulent coherent structures, which dominate energy and mass fluxes in the atmospheric surface layer. Although finer scale ramplike shapes embedded within larger scale ramplike shapes can readily be perceived in turbulent scalar traces, their presence has largely been overlooked in the literature. We demonstrate the signature of more than one ramp scale in structure functions of the turbulent scalar field measured from above bare ground and two types of short plant canopies, using structurefunction time lags ranging in scale from isotropic to larger than the characteristic coherent structures. Spectral analysis of structure functions was used to characterize different scales of turbulent structures. By expanding structure function analysis to include two ramp scales, we characterized the intermittency, duration, and surface renewal flux contribution of the smallest (i.e., Scale One) and the dominant (i.e., Scale Two) coherent structure scales. The frequencies of the coherent structure scales increase with mean wind shear, implying that both Scale One and Scale Two are sheardriven. The embedded Scale One turbulent structure scale is ineffectual in the surfacelayer energy and mass transport process. The new method reported here for obtaining surface renewalbased scalar exchange works well over bare ground and short canopies under unstable conditions, effectively eliminating the α calibration for these conditions and forming the foundation for analysis over taller and more complex surfaces.
 Anandakumar, K (1999) Sensible heat flux over a wheat canopy: optical scintillometer measurements and surfacerenewal analysis estimations. Agric For Meteorol 96: pp. 145156 CrossRef
 Antonia, RA, Chambers, AJ, Friehe, CA, Van Atta, CW (1979) Temperature ramps in the atmospheric surface layer. J Atmos Sci 36: pp. 99108 CrossRef
 Benzi, R, Ciliberto, S, Baudet, C, Ruiz Chavarria, G, Tripiccione, C (1993) Extended selfsimilarity in turbulent flows. Phys Rev E 48: pp. R29R32 CrossRef
 Castellvi, F (2004) Combining surfacerenewal analysis and similarity theory: a new approach for estimating sensible heat flux. Water Resour Res 40: pp. W05201 CrossRef
 Chen, W, Novak, MD, Black, TA (1997) Coherent eddies and temperature structure functions for three contrasting surfaces.Part I: ramp model with finite microfront time. BoundaryLayer Meteorol 84: pp. 99123 CrossRef
 Chen, W, Novak, MD, Black, TA (1997) Coherent eddies and temperature structure functions for three contrasting surfaces. Part I: Renewal model for sensible heat flux. BoundaryLayer Meteorol 84: pp. 125147 CrossRef
 Collineau, S, Brunet, Y (1993) Detection of turbulent coherent motions in a forest canopy. Part II: timescales and conditional averages. BoundaryLayer Meteorol 66: pp. 4973 CrossRef
 de Bruin HAR, Bink NI, Kroon LJM (1991) Fluxes in the surface layer under advective conditions. In: Workshop on land surface evaporation, measurement and parameterization. Springer, New York, pp 157–166
 Dias, N, Chamecki, M, Kan, A, Okawa, CMP (2004) A study of spectra, structure an correlation functions and their implications for the stationarity of the surfacelayer turbulence. BoundaryLayer Meteorol 110: pp. 165189 CrossRef
 Duce PD, Spano D, Snyder RL, Paw U KT (1998) Effect of different finewire thermocouple design on high frequency temperature measurement. In: AMS 23rd conference on agricultural and forest meteorology, Albuquerque, NM, 2–6 Nov 1998, pp 146–147
 Frisch, U (1995) Turbulence: The legacy of A.N. Kolmogorov. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
 Gao, W, Shaw, RH, Paw U, KT (1989) Observations of organized structure in turbulent flow within and above a forest canopy. BoundaryLayer Meteorol 47: pp. 349377 CrossRef
 Katul, GG, Hsieh, CI, Sigmond, J (1997) Energyinertial scale interactions for velocity and temperature in the unstable atmospheric surface layer. BoundaryLayer Meteorol 82: pp. 4980 CrossRef
 Katul, GG, Porporato, A, Cava, D, Siqueira, MB (2006) An analysis of intermittency, scaling, and surfacerenewal in atmospheric surface layer turbulence. Physica D 215: pp. 117126 CrossRef
 Kolmogorov, AN (1941) Local structure of turbulence in an incompressible fluid for very large Reynolds numbers. Dokl Akad Nauk SSSR 30: pp. 299303
 Krusche, N, De Oliveira, AP (2004) Characterization of coherent structures in the atmospheric surface layer. BoundaryLayer Meteorol 110: pp. 191211 CrossRef
 Lloyd, CR, Culf, AD, Dolman, AJ, Gash, JH (1991) Estimates of sensible heat flux from observations of temperature fluctuations. BoundaryLayer Meteorol 57: pp. 311322 CrossRef
 Mengistu MG (2007) Heat and energy exchange above different surfaces using surfacerenewal. Ph.D. Thesis. University of KwaZuluNatal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa
 Mengistu, MG, Savage, MJ (2010) Open water evaporation estimation for a small shallow reservoir in winter using surfacerenewal. J Hydrol 380: pp. 2735 CrossRef
 Paw U, KT, Brunet, Y, Collineau, S, Shaw, RH, Maitani, T, Qui, J, Hipps, L (1992) On coherent structures in turbulence above and within agricultural plant canopies. Agric For Meteorol 61: pp. 5568 CrossRef
 Paw U, KT, Qiu, J, Su, HB, Watanabe, T, Brunet, Y (1995) Surface renewal analysis: a new method to obtain scalar fluxes without velocity data. Agric For Meteorol 74: pp. 119137 CrossRef
 Paw U KT, Snyder RL, Spano D, Su HB (2005) Surface renewal estimates of scalar exchange. In: Hatfield JL (ed) Micrometeorology of agricultural systems. Agronomy Society of America, Madison, 584 pp
 Priestley, CHB (1959) Turbulent transfer in the lower atmosphere. University of Chicago Press, Chicago
 Qiu, J, Paw U, KT, Shaw, RH (1995) Pseudowavelet analysis of turbulence patterns in three vegetation layers. BoundaryLayer Meteorol 72: pp. 166204 CrossRef
 R Development Core Team (2012) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna. ISBN3900051070
 Raupach MR, Finnigan JJ, Brunet Y (1989) Coherent eddies in vegetation canopies. In: Proceedings fourth Austalasian conference on heat and mass transfer, Christchurch, New Zealand, 9–12 May, pp 75–90
 Raupach, MR, Finnigan, JJ, Brunet, Y (1996) Coherent eddies in vegetation canopies: the mixinglayer analogy. BoundaryLayer Meteorol 78: pp. 251382 CrossRef
 Shapland TM, McElrone AJ, Snyder RL, Paw U KT (2012) Structure function analysis of twoscale scalar ramps. Part I: theory and modelling. BoundaryLayer Meteorol 145 (this issue)
 Snyder, RL, Spano, D, Paw U, KT (1996) Surface renewal analysis of sensible and latent heat flux density. BoundaryLayer Meteorol 77: pp. 249266 CrossRef
 Snyder, RL, Paw U, KT, Spano, D, Duce, P (1997) Surface renewal estimates of evapotranspiration. Acta Horticult 449: pp. 4955
 Spano, D, Snyder, RL, Duce, P, Paw U, KT (1997) Surface renewal analysis for sensible heat flux density using structure functions. Agric For Meteorol 86: pp. 259271 CrossRef
 Spano, D, Snyder, RL, Duce, P, Paw U, KT (2000) Estimating sensible and latent heat flux densities from grapevine canopies using surfacerenewal. Agric For Meteorol 104: pp. 171183 CrossRef
 Taylor, RJ (1958) Thermal structures in the lowest layers of the atmosphere. Aust J Phys 11: pp. 168176 CrossRef
 Tillman, JE (1972) The indirect determination of stability, heat, and momentum fluxes in the atmospheric boundary layer from simple scalar variables during dry unstable conditions. J Appl Meteorol 11: pp. 783792 CrossRef
 Van Atta, CW (1977) Effect of coherent structures on structure functions of temperature in the atmospheric boundary layer. Arch Mech 29: pp. 161171
 Wang, J, Bras, RL (1998) A new method for estimation of sensible heat flux from air temperature. Water Resour Res 34: pp. 22812288 CrossRef
 Wesson, KH, Lai, CT, Katul, GG (2001) Sensible heat flux estimation by fluxvariance and halforder time derivative methods. Water Resour Res 37: pp. 23332343 CrossRef
 Wharton, S, Schroeder, M, Paw U, KT, Falk, M, Bible, K (2009) Turbulence consideration for comparing ecosystem exchange over oldgrowth and clearcut stands for limited fetch and complex canopy flow conditions. Agric For Meteorol 149: pp. 14771490 CrossRef
 Wyngaard, JC (1971) Local free convection, similarity, and the budgets of shear stress and heat flux. J Atmos Sci 28: pp. 11711182 CrossRef
 Wyngaard, JC (2010) Turbulence in the atmosphere. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge CrossRef
 Zapata, N, MartinezCob, A (2001) Estimation of sensible and latent heat flux from natural sparse vegetation surfaces using surfacerenewal. J Hydrol 254: pp. 215228 CrossRef
 Title
 Structure Function Analysis of TwoScale Scalar Ramps. Part II: Ramp Characteristics and Surface Renewal Flux Estimation
 Journal

BoundaryLayer Meteorology
Volume 145, Issue 1 , pp 2744
 Cover Date
 20121001
 DOI
 10.1007/s1054601297407
 Print ISSN
 00068314
 Online ISSN
 15731472
 Publisher
 Springer Netherlands
 Additional Links
 Topics
 Keywords

 Coherent structures
 Structure functions
 Surface renewal
 Temperature ramps
 Turbulence
 Fluxvariance
 Industry Sectors
 Authors

 T. M. Shapland ^{(1)}
 A. J. McElrone ^{(2)}
 R. L. Snyder ^{(3)}
 K. T. Paw U ^{(3)}
 Author Affiliations

 1. Department of Viticulture & Enology, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616, USA
 2. Crops Pathology and Genetics Research Unit, United States Department of AgricultureAgricultural Research Service, Davis, CA, 95616, USA
 3. Atmospheric Science, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616, USA