, Volume 37, Issue 2, pp 309-317
Date: 27 Aug 2013

Enzyme replacement therapy on hypophosphatasia mouse model

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Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is an inborn error of metabolism caused by deficiency of the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP), resulting in a defect of bone mineralization. Natural substrates for this ectoenzyme accumulate extracellulary including inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), an inhibitor of mineralization, and pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP), a co-factor form of vitamin B6. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for HPP by functional TNSALP is one of the therapeutic options. The C-terminal-anchorless human recombinant TNSALP derived from Chinese hamster ovary cell lines was purified. TNSALP-null mice (Akp2 -/- ), an infantile model of HPP, were treated from birth using TNSALP and vitamin B6 diet. Long-term efficacy studies of ERT consisted of every 3 days subcutaneous or intravenous injections till 28 days old (dose 20 U/g) and subsequently every 3 days intravenous injections for 6 months (dose 10 U/g). We assessed therapeutic effect by growth and survival rates, fertility, skeletal manifestations, and radiographic and pathological finding. Treated Akp2 -/- mice grew normally till 4 weeks and appeared well with a minimum skeletal abnormality as well as absence of epilepsy, compared with untreated mice which died by 3 weeks old. The prognosis of TNSALP-treated Akp2 -/- mice was improved substantially: 1) prolonged life span over 6 months, 2) improvement of the growth, and 3) normal fertility. After 6 months of treatment, we found moderate hypomineralization with abnormal proliferative chondrocytes in growth plate and articular cartilage. In conclusion, ERT with human native TNSALP improves substantial clinical manifestations in Akp2 -/- mice, suggesting that ERT with anchorless TNSALP is also a potential therapy for HPP.

Communicated by: Maurizio Scarpa
Hirotaka Oikawa, Shunji Tomatsu and Bisong Haupt contributed equally to this manuscript and agreed to share the first co-authors.