Bile acid-CoA ligase deficiency—a new inborn error of bile acid metabolism
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- Chong, C.P.K., Mills, P.B., McClean, P. et al. J Inherit Metab Dis (2012) 35: 521. doi:10.1007/s10545-011-9416-3
Born at 27 weeks gestation, a child of consanguineous parents of Pakistani origin required prolonged parenteral nutrition. She developed jaundice, with extensive fibrosis and architectural distortion at liver biopsy; jaundice resolved with supportive care. Serum γ-glutamyl transpeptidase values were within normal ranges. The bile acids in her plasma and urine were >85% unconjugated (non-amidated). Two genes encoding bile-acid amidation enzymes were sequenced. No mutations were found in BAAT, encoding bile acid-CoA : aminoacid N-acyl transferase. The patient was homozygous for the missense mutation c.1012C > T in SLC27A5, predicted to alter a highly conserved amino-acid residue (p.H338Y) in bile acid-CoA ligase (BACL). She also was homozygous for the missense mutation c.1772A > G in ABCB11, predicted to alter a highly conserved amino-acid residue (p.N591S) in bile salt export pump (BSEP). BACL is essential for reconjugation of bile acids deconjugated by gut bacteria, and BSEP is essential for hepatocyte-canaliculus export of conjugated bile acids. A female sibling born at term had the same bile-acid phenotype and SLC27A5 genotype, without clinical liver disease. She was heterozygous for the c.1772A > G ABCB11 mutation. This is the first report of a mutation in SLC27A5. The amidation defect may have contributed to cholestatic liver disease in the setting of prematurity, parenteral nutrition, and homozygosity for an ABCB11 mutation.