Article

BioMetals

, Volume 23, Issue 5, pp 823-855

Cadmium and transport of ions and substances across cell membranes and epithelia

  • Emmy Van KerkhoveAffiliated withDepartment of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University Email author 
  • , Valérie PennemansAffiliated withDepartment of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University
  • , Quirine SwennenAffiliated withDepartment of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University

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Abstract

Toxic metals such as cadmium (Cd2+) pose serious risks to human health. However, even though the importance of Cd2+ as environmental health hazards is now widely appreciated, the specific mechanisms by which it produces its adverse effects have yet to be fully elucidated. Cd2+ is known to enter cells, it binds and interacts with a multitude of molecules, it may indirectly induce oxidative stress and interfere with gene expression and repair of DNA. It also interacts with transport across cell membranes and epithelia and may therefore disturb the cell’s homeostasis and function. Interaction with epithelial transport, especially in the kidney and the liver, may have serious consequences in general health. A lot of research still needs to be done to understand the exact way in which Cd2+ interferes with these transport phenomena. It is not always clear whether Cd2+ has primary or secondary effects on cell membrane transport. In the present review we try to summarize the work that has been done up to now and to critically discuss the relevance of the experimental work in vitro with respect to the in vivo situation.

Keywords

Na+K+-ATPase Ion channels Glucose Amino acids Organic anions and cations Endocytosis Epithelial junctions