BioMetals

, Volume 23, Issue 2, pp 185–196

HIV therapeutic possibilities of gold compounds

  • Pascaline N. Fonteh
  • Frankline K. Keter
  • Debra Meyer
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10534-010-9293-5

Cite this article as:
Fonteh, P.N., Keter, F.K. & Meyer, D. Biometals (2010) 23: 185. doi:10.1007/s10534-010-9293-5

Abstract

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has resulted in decreased mortality and morbidity from the acquired immune deficiency syndrome caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Drug resistance and toxicity of HAART has led to the search for novel inhibitors of HIV infection. Gold-based compounds have shown promising activity against a wide range of clinical conditions and microorganism infections including HIV-1. A typical example is auranofin which resulted in an elevated CD4+ T-cell count in an HIV patient being treated for psoriatic arthritis. In addition, reports exist on gold-based inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RT), protease (PR) and viral entry of host cells. These and other characteristics of gold-based HIV drugs are reviewed here.

Keywords

GoldInhibitorsHIVAIDS

Abbreviations

(H2TMPyP)4+

Meso-tetrakis(N-methlypyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin

AIDS

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome

Au(CN)2

Dicyanogold

AuTG

Aurothioglucose

AuTM

Aurothiomalate

[bpzmH2][AuCl4][Cl]

Tetra-chloro-(bis-(3,5-dimethlypyrazolyl)methane)gold(III) chloride

CCR5

Chemokine receptor 5

CD25

Cluster of differentiation 25

CD4

Cluster of differentiation 4

CD45

Cluster of differentiation 45

CD8

Cluster of differentiation 8

CEM, MT-4, OM10.1, Ach2

Cell line abbreviations

Cys

Cyteine

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

GST

Gold sodium thiomalate

H2dcbpb

4,5-Dichloro-1,2-bis(2-(4-tert-butylpyridine)carboxamido)benzene

H2salen

N,N′-ethylenebis(salicylideneimine

HAART

Highly active antiretroviral therapy

HAuCl3

Hydrogen gold chloride

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus

IL

Interleukin

IL-2R

Interleukin-2 receptor

NF-κB

Nuclear factor kappa B

NP

Nanoparticle

PBMCs

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells

PR

Protease

RNA

Ribonucleic acid

RT

Reverse transcriptase

TG

Thioglucose

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha

TPP

meso-Tetraarylporphyrin

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pascaline N. Fonteh
    • 1
  • Frankline K. Keter
    • 1
  • Debra Meyer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryUniversity of PretoriaPretoriaSouth Africa