Biogeochemistry

, Volume 106, Issue 3, pp 323–336

Are patterns in nutrient limitation belowground consistent with those aboveground: results from a 4 million year chronosequence

  • Sasha C. Reed
  • Peter M. Vitousek
  • Cory C. Cleveland
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10533-010-9522-6

Cite this article as:
Reed, S.C., Vitousek, P.M. & Cleveland, C.C. Biogeochemistry (2011) 106: 323. doi:10.1007/s10533-010-9522-6

Abstract

Accurately predicting the effects of global change on net carbon (C) exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere requires a more complete understanding of how nutrient availability regulates both plant growth and heterotrophic soil respiration. Models of soil development suggest that the nature of nutrient limitation changes over the course of ecosystem development, transitioning from nitrogen (N) limitation in ‘young’ sites to phosphorus (P) limitation in ‘old’ sites. However, previous research has focused primarily on plant responses to added nutrients, and the applicability of nutrient limitation-soil development models to belowground processes has not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we assessed the effects of nutrients on soil C cycling in three different forests that occupy a 4 million year substrate age chronosequence where tree growth is N limited at the youngest site, co-limited by N and P at the intermediate-aged site, and P limited at the oldest site. Our goal was to use short-term laboratory soil C manipulations (using 14C-labeled substrates) and longer-term intact soil core incubations to compare belowground responses to fertilization with aboveground patterns. When nutrients were applied with labile C (sucrose), patterns of microbial nutrient limitation were similar to plant patterns: microbial activity was limited more by N than by P in the young site, and P was more limiting than N in the old site. However, in the absence of C additions, increased respiration of native soil organic matter only occurred with simultaneous additions of N and P. Taken together, these data suggest that altered nutrient inputs into ecosystems could have dissimilar effects on C cycling above- and belowground, that nutrients may differentially affect of the fate of different soil C pools, and that future changes to the net C balance of terrestrial ecosystems will be partially regulated by soil nutrient status.

Keywords

Carbon cycleHawai’iHeterotrophic soil respirationFertilizationLSAGNitrogenNutrient limitationPhosphorusSoil development

Copyright information

© US Government 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sasha C. Reed
    • 1
  • Peter M. Vitousek
    • 2
  • Cory C. Cleveland
    • 3
  1. 1.U.S. Geological SurveySouthwest Biological Science CenterMoabUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biological SciencesStanford UniversityStanfordUSA
  3. 3.Department of Ecosystem and Conservation SciencesUniversity of MontanaMissoulaUSA