Effect of Watering and Soil Moisture on Mercury Emissions from Soils Article Received: 17 July 2004 Accepted: 24 March 2005 DOI:
Cite this article as: Gustin, M.S. & Stamenkovic, J. Biogeochemistry (2005) 76: 215. doi:10.1007/s10533-005-4566-8 Abstract
This paper presents data from experiments that measured Mercury (Hg) flux as a function of water addition and subsequent soil drying, and maintenance of soil water content over time utilizing small dynamic gas exchange chambers and large mesocosms. When soil surfaces were dry and water was added at an amount less than that necessary to saturate the soil an immediate large (relative to dry soil flux) release of Hg occurred. Diel Hg emissions from soils, unenriched (0.02 μg g
−1) and enriched (3 μg g −1) in Hg and wet below saturation, were significantly elevated above that occurring from dry soils (2–5 times depending on soil water content) for weeks to months. Enhancement of emissions from wet soils in direct sunlight were greater than that from soils shaded or in the dark suggesting that a synergism exists between soil moisture and light. When soils were watered to saturation Hg emissions were suppressed or remained the same depending on the degree of saturation. It is hypothesized that the addition of soil water in amounts less than that necessary to saturate the soil surface results in an immediate release of elemental Hg from soil surface as the more polar water molecule out competes Hg for binding sites. As the water moves into the soil, Hg adsorbed to soil particles is desorbed into soil gas and dissolved in the soil water. The process of evaporation facilitates movement of Hg as mass flow to the soil surface where it is made available for subsequent release. The latter is hypothesized to be an important process by which Hg is recharged at the soil–air interface. Keywords Dynamic flux chambers Mercury Mesocosms Soil moisture References Bardsley, C.E., Savage, K.E., Walker, J.C. 1968 Trifluralin behavior in soil: II. Volatilization as influenced by concentration, timesoil moisture contentand placement Agron. J. 60 89 92 CrossRef Google Scholar Carpi, A., Lindberg, S.E. 1997 Sunlight-mediated emission of elemental mercury from soil amended with municipal sewage sludge Environ. Sci. Technol. 31 2085 2091 CrossRef Google Scholar Coolbaugh, M.F., Gustin, M.S., Rytuba, J.J. 2002 Annual emissions on mercury to the atmosphere from three natural source areas in Nevada and California Environ. Geol. 42 338 349 Google Scholar Engle, M.A., Gustin, M.S. 2002 Scaling up atmospheric mercury emissions from three naturally enriched areas: Flowery Peak, NevadaPeavine Peak, Nevada and Long Valley CalderaCalifornia Sci. Total Environ. 290 91 104 Google Scholar Engle, M.A., Gustin, M.S., Lindberg, S.E., Gerler, A.W. 2004 Investigation of the effect of tropospheric oxidants on Hg emissions from substrates Mater. Geoenviron. 51 1546 1549 Google Scholar Engle, M.A., Gustin, M.S., Zhang, H. 2001 Quantifying natural source mercury missions from the Ivanhoe Mining Districtnorth-central NevadaUSA Atmos. Environ. 35 3987 3997 CrossRef Google Scholar Frescholtz, T.F., Gustin, M.S. 2004 Soil and foliar mercury emission as a function of soil concentration Water Air Soil Pollut. 155 223 237 CrossRef Google Scholar Gao, F., Yates, S.R., Yates, M.V., Gan, J., Ernst, F.F. 1997 Design, fabrication, and application of a dynamic chamber for measuring gas emissions from soil Environ. Sci. Technol. 31 148 153 CrossRef Google Scholar Griffin, K.L., Ross, P.D., Sims, D.A., Luo, Y., Seemann, J.R., Fox, C.A., Ball, J.T. 1996 EcoCELLs: tools for mesocosm scale measurements of gas exchange Plant Cell Environ. 19 1212 1221 Google Scholar Gustin, M.S., Biester, H., Kim, C. 2002 Investigation of light enhanced emission of mercury from naturally enriched substrate Atmos. Environ. 36 3241 3254 CrossRef Google Scholar Gustin, M.S., Coolbaugh, M., Engle, M., Fitzgerald, B., Keislar, R., Lindberg, S., Nacht, D., Quashnick, J., Rytuba, J., Sladek, C., Zhang, H., Zehner, R. 2003 Atmospheric mercury emissions from mine wastes and surrounding geologically enriched terranes Environ. Geol. 43 339 351 Google Scholar Gustin, M.S., Ericksen, J.A., Schorran, D.E., Johnson, D.W., Lindberg, S.E., Coleman, J.S. 2004a Application of controlled mesocosm for understanding mercury plant–soil–air exchange Environ. Sci. Technol. 38 6044 6050 CrossRef Google Scholar Gustin, M.S., Lindberg, S.E., Marsik, F., Casimir, A., Ebinghaus, R., Edwards, G., Fitzgerald, C., Kemp, J., Kock, H., Leonard, T., Majewski, M., Owens, J., Poissant, L., Rasmussen, P., Schaedlich, F., Schneeberger, D., Sommar, J., Turner, R., Vette, A., Wallschlaeger, D., Xiao, Z. 1999 The Nevada SToRMS mercury flux methods intercomparison J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. 104 21831 21844 Google Scholar Gustin, M.S., Taylor, G.E., Jr., Maxey, R.A. 1997 Effect of temperaturewind velocity and concentration on the flux of elemental mercury from mill tailings to the atmosphere J. Geophys. Res. 102 3891 3898 CrossRef Google Scholar Harper, L.A., White, A.W., Jr., Bruce, R.R., Thomas, A.W., Leonard, R.A. 1976 Soil and microclimate effects on trifluralin volatilization J. Environ. Qual. 5 236 242 CrossRef Google Scholar Johnson, D., Benesech, J.A., Gustin, M.S., Schorran, D.S., Lindberg, S.E., Coleman, J.S. 2003 Experimental evidence against diffusion control of Hg evasion from soils Sci. Total Environ. 304 175 184 CrossRef Google Scholar Lindberg, S.E., Jackson, D.R., Huckabee, J.W., Janzen, S.A., Levin, M.J., Lund, J.R. 1979 Atmospheric emission and plant uptake of mercury from agricultural soils near the Almaden mercury mine J. Environ. Qual. 8 572 578 Google Scholar Lindberg, S.E., Zhang, H., Gustin, M., Vette, A., Owens, J., Marsik, F., Casimir, A., Ebinghaus, R., Edwards, G., Fitzgerald, C., Kemp, J., Kock, H.H., London, J., Majewski, M., Poissant, L., Pilote, M., Rasmussen, P., Schaedlich, F., Schneeberger, D., Sommar, J., Turner, R., Walshlager, D., Xiao, Z. 1999 Increases in mercury emissions from desert soils in response to rainfall and irrigation J. Geophys. Res. 104 21879 21888 CrossRef Google Scholar Lindberg, S.E., Zhang, H., Vette, A.F., Gustin, M.S., Barnett, M.O., Kuiken, T. 2002 Dynamic flux chamber measurement of gaseous mercury emission fluxes over soils: Part 2. Effect of flushing flow rate and verification of a two-resistance exchange interface simulation model Atmos. Environ. 36 847 859 Google Scholar Nacht, D.M., Gustin, M.S. 2004 Mercury emissions from background and altered geologic units throughout Nevada Water Air Soil Pollut. 151 179 193 CrossRef Google Scholar Obrist, D., Gustin, M.S., Arnone, J.A., Johnson, D.W., Schorran, D.E., Verburg, P.J. 2005 Measurements of gaseous elemental mercury fluxes over intact tallgrass prairie monoliths during one full year Atmos. Environ 39 957 965 CrossRef Google Scholar Parmele, L.A., Lemon, E.R., Taylor, A.W. 1972 Micrometeorological measuremnets of pesticide flux from bare soil and corn under field conditions Water Air Soil Pollut. 1 433 451 CrossRef Google Scholar Poissant, L., Pilote, M., Casimir, A. 1999 Mercury flux measurements in a naturally enriched area: correlation with environmental conditions during the Nevada Study and Tests of the Release of Mercury from Soils (STORMS) J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 104 21,845 21,858 Google Scholar
Rasmussen P.E., Edwards G.C., Kemp J.R., Fitzgerald-Hubble C.R. and Schroeder W.H. 1998. Towards an improved natural sources inventory for mercury. In: Skeaff J. (ed.), Proceedings on the Metals in the Environment: An International Symposiumpp. 74–82.
Sladek, C., Gustin, M.S., Biester, H., Kim, C. 2002 Application of three methods for determining mercury speciation in mine waste Geochemistry: Exploration, Environ. Anal. 2/4 369 375 Google Scholar Spencer, W.F., Cliath, M.M. 1973 Pesticide volatilization as related to water loss from soil J. Environ. Qual. 2 284 289 CrossRef Google Scholar Wallschlager, D., Turner, R.R., London, J., Ebinghaus, R., Kock, H.H., Sommar, J., Xiao, Z. 1999 Factors affecting the measurement of mercury emissions with field chambers J. Geophys. Res. 104 21859 21872 Google Scholar Zehner, R., Gustin, M.S. 2002 Estimation of mercury vapor flux emissions from natural geologic sources in Nevada Environ. Sci. Technol. 36 4039 4045 CrossRef Google Scholar Zhang, H., Lindberg, S.E. 1999 Processes influencing the emission of mercury from soils: A conceptual model J. Geophys. Res. 104 21889 21896 Google Scholar Zhang, H., Lindberg, S.E., Barnett, M.O., Vette, A.F., Gustin, M.S. 2002 Dynamic flux chamber measurements of gaseous mercury emissions over soils: Part I: Simulation of gaseous mercury emissions from soils using a two-resistance exchange interface model Atmos. Environ. 36 835 846 Google Scholar Zhang, H., Lindberg, S.E., Marsik, F.J., Keeler, G.J. 2001 Mercury air/surface exchange kinetics of background soils of the Tahquamenon River watershed in the Michigan upper peninsula Water Air Soil Pollut. 126 151 169 CrossRef Google Scholar