, Volume 21, Issue 6, pp 989-997
Date: 09 May 2010

Biodegradation of bisphenol A and its halogenated analogues by Cunninghamella elegans ATCC36112

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Abstract

Bisphenol A and its halogenated analogues are commonly used industrial chemicals with strong toxicological effects over many organisms. In this study, metabolic fate of bisphenol A and its halogenated analogues were evaluated with Cunninghamella elegans ATCC36112. Bisphenol A and related analogues were rapidly transformed into several metabolites by C. elegans within 2–4 days. Detailed analysis of metabolites reveals that both phase I and II metabolism occurred in C. elegans. Cytochrome P450-dependent hydroxylation was observed in BPA. However, major reaction with bisphenol A and analogues with 1-2 halogen atoms were the formation of glucose-conjugate, not being inhibited by cytochrome P450 inhibitor. Overall metabolic rates decreased with increasing number of substitution at 2- and 6-position of BPA structures, which may be consequences of limited bioavailability or steric hindrance to conjugate-forming reaction. Information from the current study will provide detailed insights over the fungal metabolism of BPA and analogues.