Community-based Monitoring of Natural Resource Use and Forest Quality in Montane Forests and Miombo Woodlands of Tanzania
Received: 05 April 2004 Accepted: 05 November 2004 DOI:
10.1007/s10531-005-8399-5 Cite this article as: Topp-Jørgensen, E., Poulsen, M., Lund, J. et al. Biodivers Conserv (2005) 14: 2653. doi:10.1007/s10531-005-8399-5 Abstract
A community-based monitoring system that focuses on natural resource use and forest quality in montane evergreen forest and miombo woodland areas was developed and implemented in 23 villages in 2002 as part of a participatory forest management regime in Iringa District, Tanzania. The scheme was developed to suit the needs and capacities of locally-elected natural resource committees managing and monitoring natural forests. Rather than measuring biodiversity, the monitoring is focused on resource extraction and disturbance. High levels of commitment to the monitoring were displayed by village level managers, and the preliminary feed-back indicates that the monitoring scheme provides them with the relevant information needed to suggest appropriate management interventions. While external support has been essential to cover development costs, natural resource revenue generated at village level can provide most of the running costs. Once developed, the scheme can, however, be transferred to similar areas at significantly lower costs that can be met by Tanzanian District budgets. Natural resource revenue generated from montane forests is generally much lower than in woodland areas due to restrictions on resource extraction imposed as a consequence of national and international interests. Opportunities to provide economic incentives for montane forest managers through direct utilisation of the resource are limited and it remains to be seen whether other non-economic incentives can sustain long term commitment in these biodiversity rich areas. Findings indicate that the key elements of this local resource utilisation monitoring scheme are simplicity, incentive mechanisms, transparency and accountability, and autonomy for local managers. However, the methods may not provide sufficient data on changes in biodiversity values in the high value forests and may need to be augmented by conventional monitoring by scientists funded by national or international institutions. Elements of the scheme are now being institutionalised within the forestry sector in Tanzania.
Keywords Community-based Forest management Locally-based monitoring Miombo woodland Montane forest Natural resource management Participatory monitoring Tanzania References Becker, C.D., Agreda, A., Astudillo, E., Constantino, M., Torres, P. 2005 Community-based surveys of fog capture and biodiversity monitoring at Loma AltaEcuador enhance social capital and institutional cooperation Biodivers. Conserv. 14 2695 2707 Google Scholar Blair, H. 2000 Participation and accountability at the periphery: democratic local governance in six countries World Dev. 28 2 39 Google Scholar
Boiesen J.H. and Lund J.F. 2003. Participatory Forest Management in Tanzania – A Socio-Economic Study on the Implementation of PFM in Iringa District. MSc-thesis, Unit of Forestry, Department of Economics and Natural Resources, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Brandon, A., Spyreas, G., Molano-Flores, B., Carroll, C., Ellis, J. 2003 Can volunteers provide reliable data for forest vegetation surveys? Nat. Areas J. 23 254 262 Google Scholar COWI 2000Project Monitoring and Evaluation System. Technical Report for MEMA COWI Copenhagen, Denmark Google Scholar COWI/Danish Forestry Extension 2000MEMA NWMP Forest and Vegetation Baseline Survey Iringa District Council, Forest and Beekeeping Division and MEMA/Danida Google Scholar Danida 2001Community Based Natural Woodlands Management: Project description, Revised version Ministry of Foreign Affairs/ DanidaCopenhagen, Denmark Google Scholar Danielsen, F., Balete, D.S., Poulsen, M.K., Enghoff, M., Nozawa, C.M., Jensen, A.E. 2000 A simple system for monitoring biodiversity in protected areas of a developing country Biodivers. Conserv. 9 1671 1705 CrossRef Google Scholar Danielsen, F., Mendoza, M.M., Alviola, P., Balete, D.S., Enghoff, M., Poulsen, M.K., Jensen, A.E. 2003 Biodiversity monitoring in developing countries: what are we trying to achieve? Oryx 37 407 409 CrossRef Google Scholar Danielsen, F., Burgess, N., Balmford, A. 2005a Monitoring matters: examining the potential of locally-based approaches Biodivers. Conserv. 14 2507 2542 Google Scholar Danielsen, F., Jensen, A.E., Alviola, P.A., Balete, D.S., Mendoza, M.M., Tagtag, A., Custodio, C., Enghoff, M. 2005b Does monitoring matter? A quantitative assessment of management decisions from locally based monitoring of protected areas Biodivers. Conserv. 14 2633 2652 Google Scholar
Davies J. and Richards M. 1999. The Use of Economics to Assess Stakeholder Incentives in Participatory Forest Management: A Review. European Union Tropical Forestry Paper 5, ODI, London, pp. i-10, pp. 23-45.
DLNRO 2001aAgreementBylaw and Management Plan: Kitapilimwa Forest Reserve Iringa District Council IringaTanzania Google Scholar DLNRO 2001bAgreementBylaw and Management Plan: Nyang’oro Forest Rangenorth Iringa District Council IringaTanzania Google Scholar DLNRO 2001cAgreementBylaw and Management Plan: Nyang’oro Forest Rangesouth Iringa District Council Iringa, Tanzania Google Scholar DLNRO 2001dAgreement, Bylaw and Management Plan: New Dabaga/Ulongambi Forest Reserve Iringa District Council IringaTanzania Google Scholar DLNRO 2001eAgreementBylaw and Management Plan: West Kilombero Scarp Forest Reserve Iringa District Council Iringa, Tanzania Google Scholar DLNRO NORDECO 2003Community based monitoring of natural resource use and forest quality District Lands, Natural Resources and Environment Office Iringa, Tanzania Google Scholar Ellis, F., Mdoe, N. 2003 Livelihoods and rural poverty reduction in Tanzania World Dev. 31 1367 1384 CrossRef Google Scholar Frontier, Tanzania 2001a New Dabaga/Ulongambi forest reserve – management and summary report Doody, K.Z. Howell, K.M. Fanning, E. eds. Report for the Udzungwa Mountains Forest Management and Biodiversity Conservation Project MEMA Iringa, Tanzania 77 Google Scholar Frontier, Tanzania 2001b West Kilombero scarp forest reserve – management and summary report Doody, K.Z. Howell, K.M. Fanning, E. eds. Report for the Udzungwa Mountains Forest Management and Biodiversity Conservation Project MEMA Iringa, Tanzania 78 Google Scholar Frontier, Tanzania 2001c New Dabaga/Ulongambi forest reserve – botanical and forest use report Doody, K.Z. Howell, K.M. Fanning, E. eds. Report for the Udzungwa Mountains Forest Management and Biodiversity Conservation Project MEMA Iringa, Tanzania 117 Google Scholar Frontier, Tanzania 2001d West Kilombero scarp forest reserve – botanical and forest use report Doody, K.Z. Howell, K.M. Fanning, E. eds. Report for the Udzungwa Mountains Forest Management and Biodiversity Conservation Project MEMA Iringa, Tanzania 45 Google Scholar Frontier, Tanzania 2001e New Dabaga/Ulongambi forest reserve – zoological report Doody, K.Z. Howell, K.M. Fanning, E. eds. Report for the Udzungwa Mountains Forest Management and Biodiversity Conservation Project MEMA Iringa, Tanzania 160 Google Scholar Frontier, Tanzania 2001f West Kilombero scarp forest reserve – zoological report Doody, K.Z. Howell, K.M. Fanning, E. eds. Report for the Udzungwa Mountains Forest Management and Biodiversity Conservation Project MEMA Iringa, Tanzania 191 Google Scholar Frost, P. 1996 The ecology of miombo woodlands Campbell, B. eds. Transition – Woodlands and Welfare in Africa Centre for International Forestry Research Bogor, Indonesia 266 Google Scholar Gaidet, N., Fritz, H., Nyahuma, C. 2003 A participatory counting method to monitor populations of large mammals in non-protected areas; a case study of bicycle counts in the Zambezi Valley, Zimbabwe Biodivers. Conserv. 12 1571 1585 CrossRef Google Scholar Hobley, M. eds. 1996Participatory Forestry: The Process of Change in India and Nepal Rural Development Forestry Study Guide 3, Rural Development Forestry Network, Overseas Development Institute London, UK 330 Google Scholar Kobbers, B., Vignon, C. 2004Forest Policy Implementation Support: Development of Guidelines and Regulations regarding the sharing of Costs and Forest Revenues/Benefits in Participatory Forest Management in Tanzania Consultancy Report for the Forest and Beekeeping Division Tanzania 10 Google Scholar Korongo 2003Technical report for MEMA: initial learning experiences Iringa District Council, Forest and Beekeeping Division and MEMA/Danida Tanzania Google Scholar Kremen, C., Merenlender, A.M., Murphy, D.D. 1994 Ecological monitoring: a vital need for integrated conservation and development programs in the tropics Conserv. Biol. 8 388 397 CrossRef Google Scholar
Ling S. 2000. NBCA Biodiversity Monitoring. Vientiane WCS/FOMACOP pp. 113
Lovett, J.C. 1985 Moist forests of Tanzania Swara 8 8 9 Google Scholar Margoluis, R., Salafsky, N. 1998Measures of Success: Designing, Managing, and Monitoring Conservation and Development Projects Island Press Washington, DC, USA Google Scholar
Meshack C.K. 2004. Transaction costs of Community Based Forest Management: Empirical evidence from Tanzania. M.Sc. thesis, University of York, UK.
Myers, N., Mittermeier, R.A., Mittermeier, C.G., da Fonseca, G.A.B., Kent, J. 2000 Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities Nature 403 853 858 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Ngomello, K.A.S., Kitahiko, M.G.G., Kimaro, I.J. 2001Report on the second game survey in NWMP/MEMA project villages, November 2001 MEMA Iringa Tanzania Google Scholar Olson, D.M., Dinerstein, E. 1998 The global 200: A representation approach to conserving the earth's most biologically valuable ecoregions Conserv. Biol. 12 502 515 CrossRef Google Scholar Ostrom, E. 1998 A behavioral approach to the rational choice theory of collective action Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. 92 1 22 Google Scholar Ostrom, E. 1999Self-Governance and Forest Resources. Occasional Paper no. 20 Centre for International Forestry Research Bogor, Indonesia 1 15 Google Scholar Petersen, L., Sandhövel, A. 2001 Forestry policy reform and the role of incentives in Tanzania Forest Policy Econ. 2 39 55 CrossRef Google Scholar Polansky, C. 2003 Participatory forest management in Africa: lessons not learned Int. J. Sust. Dev. 10 109 118 Google Scholar Poulsen, M.K., Luanglath, K. 2005 Monitoring for management of Xe Pian in Laos by protected area staff and local villagers Biodivers. Conserv. 14 2591 2610 Google Scholar van Rijsoort, J., Jinfeng, Z. 2005 Participatory resource monitoring as a means for promoting social change in Yunnan, P.R. China Biodivers. Conserv. 14 2543 2573 Google Scholar Rodríguez, J.P. 2003 Challenges and opportunities for surveying and monitoring tropical biodiversity – a response to Danielsen et al Oryx 37 411 CrossRef Google Scholar Salafsky, N. 1994 Ecological limits and opportunities for community-based conservation Western, D. Wright, R.M. eds. Community-based Conservation Island Press Washington, DC, USA 448 471 Google Scholar Salafsky, N., Margoluis, R. 1999 Threat reduction assessment: a practical and cost-effective approach to evaluating conservation and development projects Conserv. Biol. 13 830 841 CrossRef Google Scholar Springate-Baginski, O., Yadav, N., Soussan, J. 2003a Institutional development of forest user groups in Nepal: processes and indicators J. Forest Livelihood 3 21 36 Google Scholar Springate-Baginski, O., Dev, O.P., Yadav, N., Soussan, J. 2003b Community forest management in the middle hills of Nepal: the changing context J. Forest Livelihood 3 5 20 Google Scholar
Stuart-Hill G., Diggle R., Munali B., Tagg J., Ward D. 2005. The event book system: a community based atural resource monitoring system from Namibia. Biodivers. Conserv. (this issue).
URT 1982The Local Government (District Authorities) ActNo. 7 of 1982, The United Republic of Tanzania Government Printer Dar es SalaamTanzania 43 115 Google Scholar URT 1998National Forest Policy, The United Republic of Tanzania Dar es Salaam Tanzania 59 Google Scholar URT 2002The New Forest Actno. 7 of 7th June 2002, Ministry of Natural Resources and TourismThe United Republic of Tanzania Government Printer Dar es SalaamTanzania 174 Google Scholar
Wily L.A., Dewees P.A. 2001. From Users to Custodians – Changing Relations between People and the State in Forest Management in Tanzania. Policy Research Working PaperWPS 2569, Environment and Social Development UnitThe World Bank. pp. 31.
Yadav, N., Dev, O.P., Springate-Baginski, O., Soussan, J. 2003 Forest management and utilization under community forestry J. Forest Livelihood 3 37 50 Google Scholar