, Volume 43, Issue 9-10, pp 507-518

Phylogeny and Molecular Evolution of Tetraogallus in China

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In total, 535 nucleotides in the mtDNA cytochrome b have been sequenced in Tetraogallus. The 53 variable sites define 16 haplotypes in 53 Tetraogallus himalayensis samples, 1 haplotype in 2 T. altaicus samples, and 6 haplotypes in 19 T. tibetanus samples. The lowest genetic distance is between T. himalayensis and T. altaicus (0.011). The divergent time is 0.69 Ma BP between T. himalayensis and T. altaicus, 4.06 Ma BP between T. himalayensis and T. tibetanus, and 4.19 Ma BP between T. altaicus and T. tibetanus. The evidence of this work showed that T. altaicus should fall under the dark-bellied group of Tetraogallus. The dark-bellied and white-bellied speciation first occurred along with the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. A maximum glacier (0.80–0.60 Ma BP) led to the formation of T. altaicus.