, Volume 57, Issue 2, pp 227–233

Role of molecular genetics in identifying ‘fine tuned’ natural enemies of the invasive Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius: a review


    • Entomology and Nematology DepartmentUniversity of Florida
  • L. R. Christ
    • Entomology and Nematology DepartmentUniversity of Florida
  • V. Manrique
    • Biological Control Research and Containment LaboratoryUniversity of Florida
  • W. A. Overholt
    • Biological Control Research and Containment LaboratoryUniversity of Florida
  • G. S. Wheeler
    • USDA-ARS Invasive Plant Research Laboratory
  • D. A. Williams
    • Department of BiologyTexas Christian University

DOI: 10.1007/s10526-011-9418-y

Cite this article as:
Cuda, J.P., Christ, L.R., Manrique, V. et al. BioControl (2012) 57: 227. doi:10.1007/s10526-011-9418-y


Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), is a highly successful invasive species in the continental United States, Hawaiian archipelago, several Caribbean Islands, Australia, Bermuda, and a number of other countries worldwide. It also is one of only a few invasive intraspecific hybrids that has been well characterized genetically. The natural enemy complex of Brazilian peppertree includes two thrips and two psyllids that appear to be highly adapted to specific haplotypes or their hybrids. Successful biological control of Brazilian peppertree will require careful matching of the appropriate natural enemies with their host plant genotypes. The Brazilian peppertree model reviewed here could provide a useful framework for studying biological control agents on other invasive weed species that have exhibited intraspecific hybridization.


Intraspecific hybridizationHost-plant genotypesBiological controlLocal adaptationPseudophilothrips ichiniPseudophilothrips gandolfoiCalophya terebinthifoliiCalophyalatiforcepsThysanoptera: PhlaeothripidaeHemiptera: CalophyidaeSapindales: Anacardiaceae

Copyright information

© International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) 2011