Population responses of hymenopteran parasitoids to the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in recently invaded areas in north central United States
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- Duan, J.J., Bauer, L.S., Abell, K.J. et al. BioControl (2012) 57: 199. doi:10.1007/s10526-011-9408-0
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Populations of hymenopteran parasitoids associated with larval stages of the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) were surveyed in 2009 and 2010 in the recently invaded areas in north central United States (Michigan), where two introduced EAB larval parasitoids, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang and Spathius agrili Yang were released for classical biological control. Results from two years of field surveys showed that several hymenopteran parasitoids have become associated with EAB in Michigan. Among these parasitoids, the gregarious species T. planipennisi was the most abundant, accounting for 93% of all parasitoid individuals collected in 2009 (immediately after field release) and 58% in 2010 (a year later after field releases). Low levels (1–5%) of parasitism of EAB larvae by T. planipennisi were consistently detected at survey sites in both years. Separately, the abundance of the native parasitoid, Atanycolus spp., increased sharply, resulting in an average parasitism rate of EAB larvae from <0.5% in 2009 to 19% in 2010. Other parasitoids such as Phasgonophora sulcata Westwood, Spathius spp., Balcha indica Mani & Kaul, Eupelmus sp., and Eurytomus sp. were much less abundant than T. planipennisi and Atanycolus spp., and each caused <1% parasitism. Besides hymenopteran parasitoids, woodpeckers consumed 32–42% of the immature EAB stages present at our study sites, while undetermined biotic factors (such as microbial disease and host tree resistance) caused 10–22% mortality of observed EAB larvae. Relevance of these findings to the potential for biological control of EAB in the invaded areas of North America is discussed.