, Volume 8, Issue 2, pp 111-119
Date: 12 Sep 2006

Homocysteine induces DNA damage and alterations in proliferative capacity of T-lymphocytes: a model for immunosenescence?

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Abstract

Homocysteine (Hcy) appears to exert different effects on immune functions possibly contributing to age-related pathological states, including vascular diseases, immune dysfunction, and Alzheimer’s disease. However, molecular mechanisms underlying Hcy toxicity need to be better characterized. Since T cells are a suitable model to address the possible role of replicative senescence during the in vivo aging, we investigated the effects of high Hcy concentrations on mitogen-activated lymphocytes, with regard to evaluation of DNA damage and cell cycle alterations. Cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes were stimulated with mitogenic concanavalin A (5 μg/ml) for 48 h in the presence or absence of Hcy (1 mM). Both flow cytometric analysis and caspase-3 activity assay showed an increased rate of apoptosis in Hcy-treated lymphocyte cultures compared to controls. Further, Hcy exposure caused DNA fragmentation as evaluated by single cell gel electrophoresis showing the occurrence of comets. Cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay, performed after addition of cytochalasin B (5 μg/ml) and incubation up to 72 h, revealed a significantly higher frequency of micronucleated/binucleated cells in Hcy-treated cultures compared to controls (P < 0.001). Hcy also reduced cyclin B expression in comparison to control cultures, while cyclin D levels were not significantly affected. Cell cycle alterations, such as the inability of cells to enter into mitosis, could be related with DNA damage. These findings provided a link between perturbation of lymphocyte proliferation homeostasis and commitment towards apoptosis. Our results suggest the involvement of Hcy in the altered immune function associated with age and disease pathology.