Behavior Genetics

, Volume 42, Issue 3, pp 415–422

The FMR1 Premutation and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Evidence for a Complex Inheritance

  • Jessica Ezzell Hunter
  • Michael P. Epstein
  • Stuart W. Tinker
  • Ann Abramowitz
  • Stephanie L. Sherman
Original Research

DOI: 10.1007/s10519-011-9520-z

Cite this article as:
Hunter, J.E., Epstein, M.P., Tinker, S.W. et al. Behav Genet (2012) 42: 415. doi:10.1007/s10519-011-9520-z

Abstract

We recently reported elevated symptoms associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among adult female carriers of the FMR1 premutation. To gain insight into the contribution of this mutation in the context of polygenes, we examined the proportion of variation in these symptoms due to residual genetic factors after adjustment for the effect of the premutation. To accomplish this, we performed a familial aggregation analysis of ADHD symptoms among 231 females from 82 pedigrees using scores from the Connors Adult ADHD Rating Scales. Results indicate that after accounting for the effect of FMR1, there are significant residual polygenic effects on self-reported symptoms of ADHD, as measured by the ADHD Index (p = 0.0117) and problems with self-concept (p = 0.0110), one specific symptom domain associated with ADHD. For both measures, FMR1 accounts for ~5% of the variance while polygenes account for ~50% of the residual variance, suggesting that the premutation acts in concert with additional genetic loci to influence the severity of ADHD symptoms.

Keywords

CGG repeat Triplet repeat FMR1 Fragile X syndrome ADHD Familial aggregation 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jessica Ezzell Hunter
    • 1
  • Michael P. Epstein
    • 1
  • Stuart W. Tinker
    • 1
  • Ann Abramowitz
    • 2
  • Stephanie L. Sherman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Human GeneticsEmory University School of MedicineAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyEmory UniversityAtlantaUSA

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