Behavior Genetics

, Volume 41, Issue 1, pp 6–30

In Search of the Perfect Phenotype: An Analysis of Linkage and Association Studies of Reading and Reading-Related Processes

  • Thomas Skiba
  • Nicole Landi
  • Richard Wagner
  • Elena L. Grigorenko
Original Research

DOI: 10.1007/s10519-011-9444-7

Cite this article as:
Skiba, T., Landi, N., Wagner, R. et al. Behav Genet (2011) 41: 6. doi:10.1007/s10519-011-9444-7

Abstract

Reading ability and specific reading disability (SRD) are complex traits involving several cognitive processes and are shaped by a complex interplay of genetic and environmental forces. Linkage studies of these traits have identified several susceptibility loci. Association studies have gone further in detecting candidate genes that might underlie these signals. These results have been obtained in samples of mainly European ancestry, which vary in their languages, inclusion criteria, and phenotype assessments. Such phenotypic heterogeneity across samples makes understanding the relationship between reading (dis)ability and reading-related processes and the genetic factors difficult; in addition, it may negatively influence attempts at replication. In moving forward, the identification of preferable phenotypes for future sample collection may improve the replicability of findings. This review of all published linkage and association results from the past 15 years was conducted to determine if certain phenotypes produce more replicable and consistent results than others.

Keywords

Specific reading disabilityLinkage studiesAssociation studiesPhenotypesReplications

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Skiba
    • 1
  • Nicole Landi
    • 2
  • Richard Wagner
    • 3
  • Elena L. Grigorenko
    • 1
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Yale UniversityNew HeavenUSA
  2. 2.Yale University & Haskins LaboratoriesNew HavenUSA
  3. 3.Florida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA
  4. 4.Moscow State UniversityMoscowRussia
  5. 5.Columbia UniversityNew YorkUSA