Behavior Genetics

, Volume 35, Issue 2, pp 211-217

First online:

Reformulating and Simplifying the DF Analysis Model

  • Joseph Lee RodgersAffiliated withDepartment of Psychology, University of Oklahoma Email author 
  • , Hans-Peter KohlerAffiliated withDepartment of Sociology, University of Pennsylvania

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DeFries-Fulker (DF) Analysis for unselected populations is reformulated as a no-intercept model with centered variables and only two independent variables. The reformulation serves three purposes. First, the original formulation implicitly estimated two different values for c 2 and two values for h 2 . The new formulation resolves this ambiguity. Second, because the original formulation estimated h 2 with the coefficient from a regression-interaction term, whether to center the interaction variables was unclear. The new formulation explicitly resolves this issue. Finally, the new formulation estimates fewer parameters, and therefore improves estimation efficiency and statistical power.


Biometrical modeling DF analysis heritability estimation