, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp 355–383

Hierarchical Structures

Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10516-012-9185-0

Cite this article as:
Salthe, S.N. Axiomathes (2012) 22: 355. doi:10.1007/s10516-012-9185-0


This paper compares the two known logical forms of hierarchy, both of which have been used in models of natural phenomena, including the biological. I contrast their general properties, internal formal relations, modes of growth (emergence) in applications to the natural world, criteria for applying them, the complexities that they embody, their dynamical relations in applied models, and their informational relations and semiotic aspects.



Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Professor Emeritus, Department of BiologyCity University of New YorkNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biological SciencesBinghamton UniversityNew YorkUSA