Autonomous Robots

, Volume 30, Issue 1, pp 57-71

First online:

Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

Setpoint regulation for stochastically interacting robots

  • Nils NappAffiliated withElectrical Engineering, University of Washington Email author 
  • , Samuel BurdenAffiliated withElectrical Engineering, University of California at Berkeley
  • , Eric KlavinsAffiliated withElectrical Engineering, University of Washington


We present an integral feedback controller that regulates the average copy number of an assembly in a system of stochastically interacting robots. The mathematical model for these robots is a tunable reaction network, which makes this approach applicable to a large class of other systems, including ones that exhibit stochastic self-assembly at various length scales. We prove that this controller works for a range of setpoints and how to compute this range both analytically and experimentally. Finally, we demonstrate these ideas on a physical testbed.


Stochastic self-assembly Master equation Stochastic hybrid system Integral control Chemical kinetics