Artificial Intelligence and Law

, Volume 20, Issue 2, pp 145–179

Contrary to time conditionals in Talmudic logic


DOI: 10.1007/s10506-012-9123-x

Cite this article as:
Abraham, M., Gabbay, D.M. & Schild, U. Artif Intell Law (2012) 20: 145. doi:10.1007/s10506-012-9123-x


We consider conditionals of the form AB where A depends on the future and B on the present and past. We examine models for such conditional arising in Talmudic legal cases. We call such conditionals contrary to time conditionals.

Three main aspects will be investigated:
  1. 1.

    Inverse causality from future to past, where a future condition can influence a legal event in the past (this is a man made causality).

  2. 2.

    Comparison with similar features in modern law.

  3. 3.

    New types of temporal logics arising from modelling the Talmudic examples.

We shall see that we need a new temporal logic,which we call Talmudic temporal logic with linear open advancing future and parallel changing past, based on two parameters for time.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bar-Ilan UniversityRamat-GanIsrael
  2. 2.King’s CollegeLondonUK
  3. 3.University of LuxembourgLuxembourgLuxembourg

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