Good faith and fair dealing in contracts formed and performed by electronic agents
- Emily M. Weitzenböck
- … show all 1 hide
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
The development of electronic agents that increasingly play an active role in the contract formation and execution process has highlighted the need for the creation of law-abiding autonomous agent systems. The principle of good faith is an important guideline for contractual behaviour which permeates civil law systems. This paper examines how this principle is applied both during the negotiation of a contract and during its performance. Selected examples from civil law literature of precontractual duties of good faith, and of precontractual behaviour that is deemed to be contrary to good faith, are discussed. This is followed by a discussion of the extent to which such duties are recognised, or such behaviour proscribed, in common law jurisdictions. Some common standards for precontractual behaviour in civil and common law systems are identified. There is then a parallel analysis of the principle of good faith in contract performance with a view to identifying common traits or standards between civil and common law systems. These standards, in the situation where contracts are being negotiated and/or performed by or through electronic agents, would need to be reflected in the way such agents operate.
- Beale, H. G. eds. (1999) Chitty on Contracts - Vol. 1: General Principles. Sweet & Maxwell, London
- Craig, R. (1992) Norsk-Engelsk Juridisk Ordbok: Kontraktsrett. Universitetsforlaget, Oslo
- Cohen, N. Pre-contractual Duties: Two Freedoms and the Contract to Negotiate.. In: Beatson, J., Friedmann, D. eds. (1995) Good Faith and Fault in Contract Law. Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 25-56
- Fabre-Magnan, M. Duties of Disclosure and French Contract Law: Contribution to an Economic Analysis.. In: Beatson, J., Friedmann, D. eds. (1995) Good Faith and Fault in Contract Law. Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 99-120
- Falkanger, Å. T. (1999) God Tro: En Studie av Kravet Til God Tro Som Vilkår for å Erverve Eller Opprettholde Privatrettslige Rettigheter. Universitetsforlaget, Oslo
- Forrester, I. S., Goren, S. L., and Ilgen, H. M. (1975). The German Civil Code. Excerpts available at http://www.hull.ac.uk/php/lastcb/bgbengl.htm Accessed July 17, 2004.
- Furmston, M., Norisada, T., Poole, J. (1998) Contract Formation and Letters of Intent. Wiley and Sons, Chichester
- Furmston, M. (2001) Cheshire, Fifoot and Furmston’s Law of Contract. Butterworths, London
- Galgano, F. (1985) Diritto Privato, 3rd edn., CEDAM–Casa Editrice Dott. Antonio Milani, Padova
- Graver, H. P. (2003). The Approach to European Law in Norwegian Legal Doctrine–ARENA Working Paper 18/03 available at http://www.arena.uio.no/publications/wp03_18.pdf Accessed July 17, 2004.
- Hov, J. (2002) Avtaleslutning og ugyldighet: Kontraktsrett I. Papinian, Oslo
- Harrison, R. (1997) Good Faith in Sales. Sweet & Maxwell, London
- Karnow, C. E. A. (1997) Future Codes: Essays in Advanced Computer Technology and Law. Sweet & Maxwell, Boston/London
- Kessler, F., Fine, E. (1964) Culpa in contrahendo, Bargaining in Good Faith and Freedom of Contract: A Comparative Study. Harvard Law Review 77: pp. 401-449
- Lando, O., Beale, H. (2000) Principles of European Contract Law–Parts I and II Combined and Revised. Kluwer Law International, The Hague, London, Boston
- Lerouge, J. F. (2000) The use of electronic agents questioned under contractual law: Suggested solutions on a European and American Level. The John Marshall Journal of Computer & Information Law, 18: pp. 403-433
- Levanti, S. Abuso del Diritto. Diritto e Diritti, June 2001, at http://www.diritto.it/articoli/civile/levanti.html Accessed July 17, 2004.
- Lillebakken, F. The Norwegian Legal system: A Brief Introduction, available at http://www.jur.uib.no/Studier/Utland/English/ECTS/LEGAL.HTM Accessed July 17, 2004.
- O’Connor, J.F. (1990) Good Faith in English Law. Darthmouth, Aldershot
- Russell, S. J., Norvig, P. (1995) Artificial Intelligence: A modern approach. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey
- Sartor, G. Cognitive Automata and the Law. In: Bing, J., Sartor, G. eds. (2003) The Law of Electronic Agents. NRCCL, Oslo, pp. 67-113
- Steyn, L. J. (1997) Contract Law: Fulfilling the Reasonable Expectations of Honest Men. L.Q.R. 113: pp. 433-442
- Stuurman, K., Wijnands, H. (2001) Intelligent Agents: A Curse or a Blessing? A Survey of the Legal Aspects of the Application of Intelligent Software Systems.. Computer Law and Security Report 17: pp. 92-100
- Geoffrey Thomas, G. and Dannemann, G. (2002). German Civil Code - Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch–selected translations, available at http://www.iuscomp.org/gla/statutes/BGB.htm#b2s3 Accessed July 17, 2004.
- UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial contracts (1994). International Institute for the Unification of Private Law (UNIDROIT), Rome, available at http://www.jus.uio.no/lm/unidroit.contract.principles.1994/doc.html Accessed July 17, 2004.
- Weill, A., Terré, F. (1986) Droit Civil: Les Obligations. Dalloz, Paris
- Weitzenböck, E. (2002a). Good Faith and Fair Dealing in the Context of Contract Formation by Electronic Agents. In Proceedings of The AISB 2002 Symposium on Intelligent Agents in Virtual Markets, 2–5 April 2002, Imperial College London.
- Weitzenböck, E. (2002b). Electronic Agents and Contract Performance: Good Faith and Fair Dealing. In The Law of Electronic Agents: Selected Revised Papers, LEA Workshop on the Law of Electronic Agents, 67–73. CIRSFID (Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca in Storia del Diritto, Filosofia e Sociologia del Diritto e Informatica Giuridica), University of Bologna: Bologna.
- Whittaker, S., Zimmermann, R. Good faith in European Contract Law: Surveying the Legal Landscape.. In: Zimmermann, R., Whittaker, S. eds. (2000a) Good Faith in European Contract Law. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 7-62
- Whittaker, S., Zimmermann, R. Coming to terms with good faith.. In: Zimmermann, R., Whittaker, S. eds. (2000b) Good Faith in European Contract Law. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 653-701
- Wooldridge, M., Jennings, N. (1995) Intelligent Agents: Theory and Practice. Knowledge Engineering Review 10: pp. 115-152 CrossRef
- Zweigert, K., Kötz, H. (1998) Introduction to Comparative Law. Clarendon Press, Oxford
- Good faith and fair dealing in contracts formed and performed by electronic agents
Artificial Intelligence and Law
Volume 12, Issue 1-2 , pp 83-110
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- autonomous agents
- contract formation
- contract performance
- electronic agents
- fair dealing
- good faith
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law, Faculty of Law, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 6706, St. Olavs plass, 0130, Oslo, Norway