Argumentation

, Volume 24, Issue 3, pp 283–317

Wrenching from Context: The Manipulation of Commitments

Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10503-009-9157-8

Cite this article as:
Walton, D. & Macagno, F. Argumentation (2010) 24: 283. doi:10.1007/s10503-009-9157-8

Abstract

This article analyses the fallacy of wrenching from context, using the dialectical notions of commitment and implicature as tools. The data, a set of key examples, is used to sharpen the conceptual borderlines around the related fallacies of straw man, accent, misquotation, and neglect of qualifications. According to the analysis, the main characteristics of wrenching from context are the manipulation of the meaning of the other’s statement through devices such as the use of misquotations, selective quotations, and quoting out of context. The theoretical tools employed in the analysis are pragmatic theories of meaning and a dialectical model of commitment, used to explain how and why a standpoint is distorted. The analysis is based on a conception of fallacies as deceptive strategic moves in a game of dialogue. As a consequence, our focus is not only on misquotations as distortions of meaning, but on how they are used as dialectical tools to attack an opponent or win a dispute. Wrenching from context is described as a fallacy of unfairly attributing a commitment to another party that he never held. Its power as a deceptive argumentation tactic is based on complex mechanisms of implicit commitments and on their misemployment to improperly suggest an attribution of commitment.

Keywords

Commitment Ambiguity Emphasis Misquotation Implicature Selective quotation Selection bias Special pleading Fallacy 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Research on Reasoning, Argumentation & RhetoricUniversity of WindsorWindsorCanada
  2. 2.Department of LinguisticsUniversità Cattolica del Sacro CuoreMilanItaly