Acute Toxicity of Synthetic Pyrethroid Cypermethrin on the Common Carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) Embryos and Larvae
Cite this article as: Aydın, R., Köprücü, K., Dörücü, M. et al. Aquacult Int (2005) 13: 451. doi:10.1007/s10499-005-0615-5 Abstract.
In this study, the toxic effects on the embryos and larvae of the common carp were used as a model to investigate the synthetic pyrethroid pesticide, cypermethrin, which contaminates aquatic ecosystems. Data obtained from the cypermethrin acute toxicity tests were evaluated using the Probit Analysis Statistical Method. The control and eight test experiments were repeated five times. The number of dead embryos significantly increased in response to cypermethrin concentrations 0.0001, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 2, 4 and 8 μg l
−1 ( p<0.05 for each case). The 48 h LC 50 value (with 95% confidence limits) of cypermethrin for common carp embryos was estimated at 0.909 (0.256–5.074) μg l −1. Dose–response decreases in hatching success were recorded as 87.4, 85.0, 80.2, 71.4, 56.3, 48.6, 38.8 and 23.5%, respectively. The lowest concentration of cypermethrin (0.0001 μg l −1) produced a significant increase in the number of dead larvae compared to the control group ( p<0.05). The number of dead larvae significantly increased with increasing cypermethrin concentrations exposed for 1–96 h ( p<0.05). The highest concentration (8 μg l −1) showed the highest larvae mortality. The 96 h LC 50 value (with 95% confidence limits) of cypermethrin for common carp larvae was estimated at 0.809 (0.530–1.308) μg l −1. The results of the study suggest that low levels of cypermethrin in the aquatic environment may have a significant effect on the reproduction and development of carp. Keywords Acute toxicity Common carp Cypermethrin Cyprinus carpio Embryo Hatching success Larvae Synthetic pyrethroid References
American Public Health Association (APHA) 1985. Standard Methods for the Examination of
Water and Wastewater. 16th ed. Washington, DC 1268 pp.
Bradbury, S.P., Coats, J.R. 1989 Comparative toxicology of the pyrethroid insecticides Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 108 133 177 PubMed Google Scholar Casida, J.E., Gammon, D.W., Glickman, A.H., Lawrence, L.J. 1983 Mechanism of pyrethroid insecticides Ann. Rev. Pharmacol.Toxicol. 23 413 418 CrossRef Google Scholar Chaudhuri, H. 1976 Use of hormones in induced spawning of carps J. Fish. Res. Board Canada 33 940 947 Google Scholar Clark, J.R., Patrick, J.M., Jr., Moore, J.C., Lores, E.M. 1987 Waterborne and sediment-source toxicities of six organic chemicals to grass shrimp ( Palaemonetes pugio) and amphioxus ( Branchiostoma caribaeum) Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 16 401 407 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar DiMichele, L., Taylor, M.H. 1981 The mechanism of hatching in Fundulus heteroclitus: development and physiology J. Exp. Zool. 217 73 79 CrossRef Google Scholar Edwards, R., Millburn, P., Hutson, D.H. 1986 Comparative toxicity of cis-cypermethrin in rainbow troutfrog, mouse and quail Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 84 512 522 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Edwards, R., Millburn, P., Hutson, D.H. 1987 The toxicity and metabolism of the pyrethroids cis-and trans-cypermethrin in rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri Xenobiotica 17 1175 1193 PubMed Google Scholar Elliot, M. 1977Synthetic Pyrethroids American Chemical Society Washington 1 28 Google Scholar
Environment Agency 1997. Pesticides in the Aquatic Environment. Update of the Report of the National Rivers Authority, National Centre for Toxic and Persistent Substances, Water Quality Series No: 26.
Ferreira, J.T., Schoonbee, H.J., Smit, G.L. 1984 The uptake of the anaesthetic Benzocaine-hydrochloride by the gills and skin of three freshwater fish species J. Fish Biol. 25 35 41 Google Scholar Hill, I.R. 1989 Aquatic organisms and pyrethroids J. Pesticide Sci. 27 429 465 Google Scholar Katzung, B.G. 1992Basic and Clinical Pharmacology5 Appleton and Lange Connecticut 1017 Google Scholar Köprücü, K., Aydin, R. 2004 The toxic effects of pyrethroid deltamethrin on common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) embryos and larvae Pesticide Biochem. Physiol. 80 47 53 CrossRef Google Scholar Kumaragura, A.K., Beamish, F.W.H. 1981 Lethal toxicity of permethrin (NRDC-143) to rainbow trout Salmo gairdneriin relation to body weight and temperature Water Res. 15 503 505 CrossRef Google Scholar Milam, C.D., Farris, J.L., Wilhide, J.D. 2000 Evaluating mosquito control pesticides for effect on target and nontarget organisms Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 39 324 328 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Moore, A., Waring, C.P. 2001 The effects of a synthetic pyrethroid pesticide on some aspects of reproduction in atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) Aquatic Toxicol. 52 1 12 CrossRef Google Scholar Philip, G.H., Reddy, P.M., Sridevi, G. 1995 Cypermethrin-induced in vivo alterations in the carbohydrate metabolism of freshwater fish Labeo rohita Ecotoxicol. Environ. Safety 31 173 178 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Polat, H., Erkoç, F.Ü., Viran, R., Koçak, O. 2002 Investigation of acute toxicity of beta-cypermethrin on guppies, Poecilia reticulata Chemosphere 49 39 44 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Reddy, A.T.V., Ayyanna, K., Yellamma, K. 1991 Sensitivity of brain cholinesterase to cypermethrin toxicity in freshwater teleost Tilapia mossambica Biochem. Int. 23 959 962 PubMed Google Scholar Rothbard, S., Yaron, Z. 1996 Carps (Cyprinidae) Bromage, N.R. Roberts, R.J. eds. Broodstock Management and Egg Larval Quality Blackwell Science Ltd Great Britain, Cambridge 321 352 Google Scholar Schoots, A.F.M., Meijer, R.J., Denuce, J.M. 1983 Dopaminergic regulation of hatching in fish embryos Develop. Biol. 100 59 63 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Shires, S.W. 1985 Toxicity of a new pyrethroid insecticideWL 85871, to rainbow trout Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 34 134 137 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Smith, T.M., Stratton, G.M. 1986 Effects of synthetic pyrethroid insecticides on nontarget organisms Residue Rev. 97 93 119 PubMed Google Scholar United States Environmental Protection Agency 1989Pesticide Fact Sheet Number 199: Cypermethrin Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances Washington, DC 2 9 Google Scholar Woynarovich, E., Woynarovich, A. 1980 Modified technology for elimination of stickiness of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) eggs Aquacult. Hungaria 2 19 21 Google Scholar