Apoptosis

, Volume 16, Issue 8, pp 856–867

Shogaols at proapoptotic concentrations induce G2/M arrest and aberrant mitotic cell death associated with tubulin aggregation

  • Fei-Fei Gan
  • Amrita A. Nagle
  • Xiaohui Ang
  • Olivia Huixian Ho
  • Sock-Hoon Tan
  • Hong Yang
  • Wai-Keung Chui
  • Eng-Hui Chew
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10495-011-0611-3

Cite this article as:
Gan, FF., Nagle, A.A., Ang, X. et al. Apoptosis (2011) 16: 856. doi:10.1007/s10495-011-0611-3

Abstract

Shogaols have been previously reported to induce cancer cell death via multiple mechanisms, among which one analog 6-shogaol has been reported to cause microtubule damage through specific reaction with sulfhydryl groups in tubulin. In this study, a series of shogaols with different side chain lengths (4-, 6-, 8- and 10-shogaol) was synthesized and evaluated for antiproliferative activity in HCT 116 colon carcinoma and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. 4- and 6-shogaol were identified as lead compounds possessing the strongest antiproliferative activity. In the soft agar assay, the lead shogaols displayed dose-dependent inhibition on cancer cell colony formation under anchorage-independent conditions. Using HCT 116 as the selected cancer cell line, the molecular events linking shogaols-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest to apoptosis characterized by caspase 3 and PARP cleavage were investigated. At sublethal concentrations, the halt at G2/M phase was alleviated along time and cells survived. Conversely, proapoptotic concentrations of 4- and 6-shogaol induced irreversible G2/M arrest that was at least in part associated with down-regulation of cell cycle checkpoint proteins cdk1, cyclin B and cdc25C, as well as spindle assembly checkpoint proteins mad2, cdc20 and survivin. A dose- and time-dependent accumulation of insoluble tubulin in the insoluble fractions of cell lysates provided evidence that G2 checkpoint failure led to disruption of microtubule turnover. In summary, our results conclude that shogaols cause apoptosis by inducing aberrant mitosis at least through the attenuation of cell cycle and spindle assembly checkpoint proteins.

Keywords

Shogaols G2/M arrest Apoptosis Tubulin Cell cycle checkpoint proteins Spindle assembly checkpoint proteins 

Abbreviations

CAK

Cdk activating kinase

Cdk

Cyclin-dependent kinase

mad2

Mitotic-arrest deficient homologue-2

p-cdk1

Phospho cyclin-dependent kinase 1

Supplementary material

10495_2011_611_MOESM1_ESM.doc (578 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 577 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fei-Fei Gan
    • 1
  • Amrita A. Nagle
    • 1
  • Xiaohui Ang
    • 1
  • Olivia Huixian Ho
    • 1
  • Sock-Hoon Tan
    • 1
  • Hong Yang
    • 1
  • Wai-Keung Chui
    • 1
  • Eng-Hui Chew
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of ScienceNational University of SingaporeSingaporeRepublic of Singapore

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