, Volume 15, Issue 6, pp 738-751
Date: 08 Apr 2010

Attenuation of NF-κB and activation of Nrf2 signaling by 1,2,4-triazine derivatives, protects neuron-like PC12 cells against apoptosis

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Abstract

Oxidative stress has been implicated in the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases and aging. Indeed, accumulation of reactive oxygen species, such as hydrogen peroxide, generated by inflammatory cells, leads to oxidative stress, which may contribute to the neuronal degeneration observed in a wide variety of neurodegenerative disorders of the central nervous system, such as Alzheimer’s disease. The present study indicates that H2O2-induced cell death can be inhibited in the presence of 1,2,4-triazine derivatives, as measured by MTT and caspase-3 activity. We further show that these compounds exert their protective effect by up-regulation of hemeoxygenase-1, glutamylcysteine synthetase, glutathione peroxidase and nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2), while they inhibit NF-κB and decrease lipid peroxidation. It shows that there is a potential cross talk between NF-κB and Nrf2, an important cytoprotective transcription factor in the presence of these compounds. Moreover, in order for drugs to be effective in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, they must be capable of penetrating the blood–brain barrier, whereas more than 98% of all potential central nervous system drugs don’t cross. Using a reliable model based on the artificial neural network indicated that these compounds satisfy this requirement.