Bax activation and mitochondrial insertion during apoptosis
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- Lalier, L., Cartron, PF., Juin, P. et al. Apoptosis (2007) 12: 887. doi:10.1007/s10495-007-0749-1
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The mitochondrial apoptotic pathway is a highly regulated biological mechanism which determines cell fate. It is defined as a cascade of events, going from an apoptotic stimulus to the MOM permeabilization, resulting in the activation of the so-called executive phase. This pathway is very often altered in cancer cells.
The mitochondrial permeabilization is under the control of the Bcl-2 family of proteins (pBcls). These proteins share one to four homology domains (designed BH1-4) with Bcl-2, and are susceptible of homo- and/or hetero-dimerization. In spite of a poor amino-acid sequence homology, these proteins exhibit very similar tertiary structures. Strikingly, while some of these proteins are anti-apoptotic, the others are pro-apoptotic. Pro-apoptotic proteins are further divided in two sub-classes: multi-domains proteins, among which Bax and Bak, which exhibit BH1-3 domains, and BH3-only proteins (or BOPs). Schematically, BOPs and anti-apoptotic proteins antagonistically regulate the activation of the multi-domain proteins Bax and Bak and their oligomerization in the MOM, the latter process being responsible for the apoptotic mitochondrial permeabilization.
Considering the critical role of Bax in cancer cells apoptosis, we focus in this review on the molecular events of Bax activation through its interaction with the other proteins from the Bcl-2 family. The mechanism by which Bax triggers the MOM permeabilization once activated will be discussed in some other reviews in this special issue.
BH3 only proteins
proteins of the Bcl-2 family
mitochondrial outer membrane
Apoptosis Regulating Target domain
Cytosolic Locked In Conformation
Cytochrome c Liberation Associated Conformation