Callicarpenal (13, 14, 15, 16-tetranor-3-cleroden-12-al) and intermedeol [(4S,5S,7R,10S)-eudesm-11-en-4-ol], isolated from American beautyberry, Callicarpa americana (Lamiaceae), were evaluated in laboratory bioassays for repellent activity against host-seeking nymphs of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, and lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum. A strip of organdy cloth treated with test solution was doubly wrapped (treatment on outer layer) around the middle phalanx of a forefinger and ticks released on the fingertip. Callicarpenal and intermedeol, at 155 nmole/cm2 cloth repelled 98 and 96% of I. scapularis nymphs, respectively. Dose response tests with I. scapularis nymphs showed no difference in repellency among callicarpenal, intermedeol and Deet (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide), however, SS220 ((1S,2′S)-2-methylpiperidinyl-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxamide) was significantly more repellent than the other compounds. Callicarpenal, at 155 nmole/cm2 cloth, repelled 100 and 53.3% of I. scapularis nymphs at 3 and 4 h, respectively, after the cloth was treated, whereas intermedeol repelled 72.5% of I. scapularis nymphs 3 h after treatment. In comparison with the results obtained with I. scapularis, callicarpenal, intermedeol, Deet and SS220 were less effective against A. americanum. Only intermedeol and SS220 repelled significantly more A. americanum than ethanol controls at 155 nmole compound/cm2 cloth. At 1,240 nmole/cm2 cloth, callicarpenal and intermedeol repelled 20 and 40% of A. americanum nymphs.
American beautyberryBlacklegged tickLone star tickDeetSS220