Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback

, Volume 36, Issue 4, pp 251-264

First online:

Neurofeedback for Insomnia: A Pilot Study of Z-Score SMR and Individualized Protocols

  • Barbara U. HammerAffiliated withDepartment of Psychophysiology, Helfgott Research Institute, National College of Natural Medicine Email author 
  • , Agatha P. ColbertAffiliated withDepartment of Psychophysiology, Helfgott Research Institute, National College of Natural Medicine
  • , Kimberly A. BrownAffiliated withHelfgott Research Institute, National College of Natural Medicine
  • , Elena C. IlioiAffiliated withDepartment of Psychology, McGill University

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Insomnia is an epidemic in the US. Neurofeedback (NFB) is a little used, psychophysiological treatment with demonstrated usefulness for treating insomnia. Our objective was to assess whether two distinct Z-Score NFB protocols, a modified sensorimotor (SMR) protocol and a sequential, quantitative EEG (sQEEG)-guided, individually designed (IND) protocol, would alleviate sleep and associated daytime dysfunctions of participants with insomnia. Both protocols used instantaneous Z scores to determine reward condition administered when awake. Twelve adults with insomnia, free of other mental and uncontrolled physical illnesses, were randomly assigned to the SMR or IND group. Eight completed this randomized, parallel group, single-blind study. Both groups received fifteen 20-min sessions of Z-Score NFB. Pre-post assessments included sQEEG, mental health, quality of life, and insomnia status. ANOVA yielded significant post-treatment improvement for the combined group on all primary insomnia scores: Insomnia Severity Index (ISI p < .005), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI p < .0001), PSQI Sleep Efficiency (p < .007), and Quality of Life Inventory (p < .02). Binomial tests of baseline EEGs indicated a significant proportion of excessively high levels of Delta and Beta power (p < .001) which were lowered post-treatment (paired z-tests p < .001). Baseline EEGs showed excessive sleepiness and hyperarousal, which improved post-treatment. Both Z-Score NFB groups improved in sleep and daytime functioning. Post-treatment, all participants were normal sleepers. Because there were no significant differences in the findings between the two groups, our future large scale studies will utilize the less burdensome to administer Z-Score SMR protocol.


Neurofeedback Z-Score EEG Sleep Insomnia QEEG SMR Biofeedback