Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback

, Volume 34, Issue 3, pp 197–208

Countering Countermeasures in the Concealed Information Test Using Covert Respiration Measures


DOI: 10.1007/s10484-009-9090-5

Cite this article as:
Elaad, E. & Ben-Shakhar, G. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback (2009) 34: 197. doi:10.1007/s10484-009-9090-5


The effects of physical and mental countermeasures on the accuracy of the concealed information test (CIT) were examined in a mock crime experiment with 64 participants. To combat countermeasures, two covert respiration measures, hidden in the seat and back of the examination chair, were used in addition to the standard physiological measures (SCR, FPWL, RLL). Some guilty participants were trained to use either physical or mental countermeasures and apply them to distort the outcomes of the CIT. In the second phase of the experiment participants were detached from the standard polygraph devices and examined solely with the two covert measures. Results indicated that physical countermeasures lowered SCR accuracy but had a relatively small effect on the other standard measures. On the other hand, SCR was relatively resistant to mental countermeasures. Both covert measures were resistant to physical countermeasures in the polygraph phase. When the standard devices were removed, the covert seat measure was effective in the no countermeasure and in the mental countermeasure conditions but not when physical countermeasures were applied. The back measure was entirely ineffective.


Guilty knowledge testConcealed information testPolygraphPsychophysiological detection of informationUnobtrusive respiration measuresRespirationSkin conductanceFinger pulse volume

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ariel University CenterArielIsrael
  2. 2.The Hebrew University of JerusalemJerusalemIsrael