Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback

, Volume 31, Issue 3, pp 187–201

Pelvic Floor Muscle Biofeedback in the Treatment of Urinary Incontinence: A Literature Review


DOI: 10.1007/s10484-006-9010-x

Cite this article as:
Glazer, H. & Laine, C. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback (2006) 31: 187. doi:10.1007/s10484-006-9010-x

Biofeedback is efficacious in the training of the pelvic floor musculature in order to enhance continence. This article reviews the anatomy and physiology of micturition as the underlying rationale for pelvic floor muscle biofeedback in the treatment of urinary incontinence. It critically reviews 28 studies published in peer reviewed journals from 1975 to 2005 that were prospective, randomized studies with parametric statistical analyses, operationally defined patient selection criteria, treatment protocols and outcome measures. The overall mean treatment improvement for patients undergoing biofeedback for urinary incontinence was 72.61%. In 21 of 35 (60%) paired comparisons, biofeedback demonstrated superior symptomatic outcome to control or alternate treatment groups. Larger studies and a standardization of technology and methodology are required for more conclusive determinations.


biofeedbackurinary incontinencepelvic floor muscle

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Joan and Sanford Weill Medical College of Cornell UniversityNew York Presbyterian HospitalNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Saybrook Graduate School and Research CenterSan FranciscoUSA