Original Paper

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

, Volume 97, Issue 3, pp 261-273

First online:

The Pseudomonas fluorescens secondary metabolite 2,4 diacetylphloroglucinol impairs mitochondrial function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

  • Olive GleesonAffiliated withDepartment of Microbiology, University College CorkBiochemistry Department, National University of Ireland Galway
  • , Fergal O’GaraAffiliated withDepartment of Microbiology, University College CorkBIOMERIT Research Centre, BioSciences Institute, University College Cork
  • , John P. MorrisseyAffiliated withDepartment of Microbiology, University College Cork Email author 

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Pseudomonas fluorescens strains are known to produce a wide range of secondary metabolites including phenazines, siderophores, pyoluteorin, and 2,4 diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG). DAPG is of particular interest because of its antifungal properties and because its production is associated with inhibition of phytopathogenic fungi in natural disease-suppressive soils. This trait has been exploited to develop strains of P. fluorescens that have potential application as biocontrol agents. Although the biochemistry, genetics and regulation of DAPG production have been well-studied, relatively little is known about how DAPG inhibits fungal growth and how fungi respond to DAPG. Employing a yeast model and a combination of phenotypic assays, molecular genetics and molecular physiological probes, we established that inhibition of fungal growth is caused by impairment of mitochondrial function. The effect of DAPG on yeast is largely fungistatic but DAPG also induces the formation of petite cells. Expression of the multidrug export proteins Pdr5p and Snq2p is increased by DAPG-treatment but this appears to be a secondary effect of mitochondrial damage as no role in enhancing DAPG-tolerance was identified for either Pdr5p or Snq2p.


2,4 Diacetylphloroglucinol Yeast Pseudomonas Biocontrol Bacteria Yeast interactions