Linearity of bulk-controlled inverter ring VCO in weak and strong inversion
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
In this paper linearity of frequency modulation in voltage controlled inverter ring oscillators for non feedback sigma delta converter applications is studied. The linearity is studied through theoretical models of the oscillator operating at supply voltages above and below the threshold voltage of a transistor, bringing the transistors in respectively strong and weak inversion. The theoretical results are tested with more advanced models through spectreRF simulations. A soft rail approach implemented to improve linearity in weak inversion is proposed and demonstrated. The influence from voltage noise, process variations and temperature variations have also been simulated to indicate the advantages of having the soft rail bias transistor in the VCO.
- M. Høvin, A. Olsen, T.S. Lande, and C. Toumazou, “Delta-sigma modulators using frequency-modulated intermediate values.” IEEE JSSC, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 13–22, 1997.
- A. Hajimiri, S. Limotyrakis, and T.H. Lee, “Jitter and phase noise in ring oscillators.” IEEE JSSC, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 790–804, 1999.
- Y.U. Young, J.F. McDonald, and R.P. Kraft. “12–23 GHz ultra wide tuning range voltage-controlled ring oscillator with hybrid control schemes.” In Proc. IEEE Computer Society Annual Symposium on VLSI 2005, 2005, pp. 278–279.
- S. Aunet, B. Oelmann, T.S. Lande, and Y. Berg, “Multifunction subthreshold gate used for a low power full adder.” In Proc. Norchip Conference 2004, 2004, pp. 44–47.
- R.R. Pal, H.N. Acharya, S. Kai, and N.B. Chakrabarti, “Voltage controlled oscillators using complementary current mirror inverter.” IEE Electronics Letters, vol. 28, no. 18, pp. 1701–1702, 1992.
- A. Hajimiri and T.H. Lee, “A general theory of phase noise in electrical oscillators.” IEEE JSSC, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 179–194, 1998.
- S.A. Wartenberg and J.R. Hauser, “Substrate voltage and accumulation-mode MOS varactor capacitance.” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 1563–1567, 2005.
- M.J. Deen, M.H. Kazemeini, and S. Naseh, “Performance characteristics of an ultra-low power VCO.” In Proc. International Symposium on Circuits and Systems ISCAS03, May 2003, pp. 697–700.
- Y. Tsividis, Operation and Modeling of the MOS Transistor, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1999.
- W. Fichtner and H.W. Potzl, “MOS modelling by analytical approximations. I. Subthreshold current and threshold voltage.” International Journal of Electronics, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 33–55, 1979.
- M. Yoshida, “Mosfet carrier mobility model based on gate oxide thickness, threshold and gate voltages.” Solid-State Electronics, vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 1515–1518, 1996.
- Linearity of bulk-controlled inverter ring VCO in weak and strong inversion
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing
Volume 50, Issue 1 , pp 59-67
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- Inverter ring
- Linear modulation
- Weak inversion
- Industry Sectors