School Context Protective Factors Against Peer Ethnic Discrimination Across the High School Years
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Ethnically diverse high school contexts present unique social opportunities for youth to form interethnic relationships, but they may also subject students to certain social challenges such as peer ethnic discrimination. With a sample of 1,072 high school students (55% girls; 54% Latino, 20% African American, 14% Asian, 12% White) attending 84 high schools, school context factors that protect students’ exposure to peer ethnic discrimination across the high school years were investigated with a three-level hierarchical linear model. Each spring for four consecutive years (grades 9–12), self-reported peer ethnic discrimination, interracial climate at school, and perceived school ethnic composition were assessed. At the school level, objective high school ethnic composition data were collected. Peer ethnic discrimination was found to decline slightly across the high school years. Above and beyond this decline, more positive perceptions of the school interracial climate and both objective and perceived numerical ethnic majority status predicted lower levels of peer ethnic discrimination. Taken together, the results highlight the significance of both objective (e.g., ethnic composition) and subjective (e.g., interracial climate) aspects of the school ethnic context to students’ high school social experiences.
- Altinyelken, H. (2009). Migration and self-esteem: A qualitative study among internal migrant girls in Turkey. Adolescence, 44, 149–163.
- Bellmore, A., Nishina, A., & Graham, S. (2011). Peer popularity in the context of ethnicity. In A. H. N. Cillessen, D. Schwartz, & L. Mayeux (Eds.), Popularity in the peer system (pp. 193–215). New York, NY: Guilford.
- Bellmore, A. D., Witkow, M. R., Graham, S., & Juvonen, J. (2004). Beyond the individual: The impact of ethnic context and classroom behavioral norms on victims’ adjustment. Developmental Psychology, 40, 1159–1172. CrossRef
- Benner, A.D., & Graham, S. (in press). Latino adolescents’ experiences of discrimination across the first two years of high school: Correlates and influences on educational outcomes. Child Development
- Brewer, C. A., & Suchan, T. A. (2001). Mapping Census 2000: The geography of U.S. diversity [Electronic version]. (U.S. Census Bureau, Census Special Reports, Series CENSR/01–1). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
- Brody, G., Chen, Y., Murray, V., Ge, X., Simons, R., Gibbons, F., et al. (2006). Perceived discrimination and the adjustment of African American youths: A Five-Year longitudinal analysis with contextual moderation effects. Child Development, 77, 1170–1189. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2006.00927.x. CrossRef
- Brown, B. (2004). Adolescents’ relationships with peers. Handbook of adolescent psychology (2nd ed., pp. 363–394). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
- Brown, C. S., & Bigler, R. S. (2005). Children’s perceptions of discrimination: A developmental model. Child Development, 76, 533–553. CrossRef
- Chavous, T. M., Rivas-Drake, D., Smalls, C., Griffin, T., & Cogburn, C. (2008). Gender matters, too: The influences of school racial discrimination and racial identity on academic engagement outcomes among African American adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 44, 637–654. CrossRef
- Costigan, C., Hua, J., & Su, T. (2010). Living up to expectations: The strengths and challenges experienced by Chinese Canadian Students. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 25, 223–245. doi:10.1177/0829573510368941. CrossRef
- Fisher, C. B., Wallace, S. A., & Fenton, R. E. (2000). Discrimination distress during adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29, 679–695. CrossRef
- Goetz, J., & Breneman, E. (1988). Desegregation and Black students’ experiences in two rural southern elementary schools. The Elementary School Journal, 88, 489–502. doi:10.1086/461552. CrossRef
- Graham, S., Bellmore, A., Nishina, A., & Juvonen, J. (2009). “It must be me”: Ethnic diversity and attributions for peer victimization. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38, 487–499. CrossRef
- Graham, S., & Juvonen, J. (2002). Ethnicity, peer harassment, and adjustment in middle school: An exploratory study. Journal of Early Adolescence, 22, 173–199. CrossRef
- Green, C., Adams, A., & Turner, C. (1988). Development and validation of the School Interracial Climate Scale. American Journal of Community Psychology, 16, 241–259. doi:10.1007/BF00912525. CrossRef
- Greene, M. L., Way, N., & Pahl, K. (2006). Trajectories of perceived adult and peer discrimination among Black, Latino, and Asian American adolescents: Patterns and psychological correlates. Developmental Psychology, 42, 218–238. CrossRef
- Grossman, J., & Liang, B. (2008). Discrimination distress among Chinese American adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37(1), 1–11. doi:10.1007/s10964-007-9215-1. CrossRef
- Hallinan, M. T. (1982). Classroom racial composition and children’s friendships. Social Forces, 61, 56–72.
- Juang, L. P., & Cookston, J. T. (2009). Acculturation, discrimination, and depressive symptoms among Chinese American adolescents: A longitudinal study. Journal of Primary Prevention, 30, 475–496. CrossRef
- Juvonen, J., Nishina, A., & Graham, S. (2006). Ethnic diversity and perceptions of safety in urban middle schools. Psychological Science, 17, 393–400. CrossRef
- LaFontana, K., & Cillessen, A. (2010). Developmental changes in the priority of perceived status in childhood and adolescence. Social Development, 19, 130–147. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9507.2008.00522.x. CrossRef
- Mattison, E., & Aber, M. (2007). Closing the achievement gap: The association of racial climate with achievement and behavioral outcomes. American Journal of Community Psychology, 40, 1–12. doi:10.1007/s10464-007-9128-x. CrossRef
- Moody, J. (2001). Race, school integration, and friendship segregation in America. American Journal of Sociology, 107, 679–716. CrossRef
- Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2007). Mplus user’s guide (5th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.
- Nishina, A., Bellmore, A., Witkow, M. R., & Nylund-Gibson, K. (2010). Longitudinal consistency of adolescent ethnic identification across varying school ethnic contexts. Developmental Psychology, 46, 1389–1401. doi:10.1037/a0020728. CrossRef
- Perreira, K., Fuligni, A., & Potochnick, S. (2010). Fitting in: The roles of social acceptance and discrimination in shaping the academic motivations of Latino youth in the U.S. Southeast. Journal of Social Issues, 66, 131–153. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.2009.01637.x.
- Phinney, J. S. (1990). Ethnic identity in adolescents and adults: Review of research. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 499–514. CrossRef
- Qin, D., Way, N., & Mukherjee, P. (2008). The other side of the model minority story: The familial and peer challenges faced by Chinese American adolescents. Youth & Society, 39, 480–506. doi:10.1177/0044118X08314233. CrossRef
- Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
- Raudenbush, S. W., Bryk, A. S., & Congdon, R. (2000). HLM for Windows. Version 6. Lincolnwood, IL: Scientific Software International, Inc.
- Rivas-Drake, D., Hughes, D., & Way, N. (2009). A preliminary analysis of associations among ethnic racial socialization, ethnic discrimination, and ethnic identity among urban sixth graders. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 19, 558–584. doi:10.1111/j.1532-7795.2009.00607.x. CrossRef
- Rosenbloom, S. R., & Way, N. (2004). Experiences of discrimination among African American, Asian American, and Latino adolescents in an urban high school. Youth & Society, 35, 420–451. CrossRef
- Seaton, E., Caldwell, C., Sellers, R., & Jackson, J. (2008). The prevalence of perceived discrimination among African American and Caribbean Black youth. Developmental Psychology, 44, 1288–1297. doi:10.1037/a0012747. CrossRef
- Simpson, E. H. (1949). Measurement of diversity. Nature, 163, 688. CrossRef
- Tsai, J. (2006). Xenophobia, Ethnic community, and immigrant youths’ friendship network formation. Adolescence, 41, 285–298.
- Verkuyten, M. (2003). Positive and negative self-esteem among ethnic minority early adolescents: Social and cultural sources and threats. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 32, 267–277. doi:10.1023/A:1023032910627. CrossRef
- School Context Protective Factors Against Peer Ethnic Discrimination Across the High School Years
American Journal of Community Psychology
Volume 49, Issue 1-2 , pp 98-111
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer US
- Additional Links
- Ethnic discrimination
- School context