Bailey RC, Moses S, Parker CB, et al. Male circumcision for HIV prevention in young men in Kisumu, Kenya: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2007;369(9562):643–56.PubMedCrossRef
Gray RH, Kigozi G, Serwadda D, et al. Male circumcision for HIV prevention in men in Rakai, Uganda: a randomised trial. Lancet. 2007;369(9562):657–66.PubMedCrossRef
Auvert B, Taljaard D, Lagarde E, et al. Randomized, controlled intervention trial of male circumcision for reduction of HIV infection risk: the ANRS 1265 Trial. PLoS Med. 2005;2(11):298.CrossRef
World Health Organization, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. New data on male circumcision and HIVprevention: policy and programme implications (2007).http://libdoc.who.int/publications/2007/9789241595988_eng.pdf
Accessed 21 Sep 2012.
Weiss HA, Dickson KE, Agot K, Hankins CA. Male circumcision for HIV prevention: current research and programmatic issues. AIDS (Lond, Engl). 2010;24(Suppl 4):61–9.CrossRef
Kahn JG, Marseille E, Auvert B. Cost-effectiveness of male circumcision for HIV prevention in a South African setting. PLoS Med. 2006;3(12):517.CrossRef
Westercamp N, Bailey RC. Acceptability of male circumcision for prevention of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa: a review. AIDS Behav. 2007;11(3):341–55.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
Bollinger LA, Stover J, Musuka G, et al. The cost and impact of male circumcision on HIV/AIDS in Botswana. J Int AIDS Soc. 2009;12:7.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
Gray RH, Li X, Kigozi G, et al. The impact of male circumcision on HIV incidence and cost per infection prevented: a stochastic simulation model from Rakai, Uganda. AIDS (Lond, Engl). 2007;21(7):845–50.CrossRef
Nagelkerke NJ, Moses S, de Vlas SJ, Bailey RC. Modelling the public health impact of male circumcision for HIV prevention in high prevalence areas in Africa. BMC Infect Dis. 2007;7:16.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
UNAIDS/WHO/SACEMA Expert Group on Modelling the Impact and Cost of Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention. Male circumcision for HIV prevention in high HIV prevalence settings: what can mathematical modelling contribute to informed decision making? PLoS Med. 2009;6(9):1000109.CrossRef
Williams BG, Lloyd-Smith JO, Gouws E, et al. The potential impact of male circumcision on HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. PLoS Med. 2006;3(7):262.CrossRef
de Bruyn G, Martinson NA, Gray GE. Male circumcision for HIV prevention: developments from sub-Saharan Africa. Expert Rev Anti-infect Therapy. 2010;8(1):23–31.CrossRef
Hankins C, Forsythe S, Njeuhmeli E. Voluntary medical male circumcision: an introduction to the cost, impact, and challenges of accelerated scaling up. PLoS Med. 2011;8(11):1001127.CrossRef
World Health Organization (WHO). Progress in scaling up voluntary medical male circumcision for HIV prevention in east and southern Africa: January–December. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2011. p. 2012.
Hogben M, Liddon N. Disinhibition and risk compensation: scope, definitions, and perspective. Sex Transm Dis. 2008;35(12):1009–10.PubMed
Cassell MM, Halperin DT, Shelton JD, Stanton D. Risk compensation: the Achilles’ heel of innovations in HIV prevention? BMJ (Clin Res Ed). 2006;332(7541):605–7.CrossRef
Kalichman S, Eaton L, Pinkerton S. Circumcision for HIV prevention: failure to fully account for behavioral risk compensation. PLoS Med. 2007;4(3):138.CrossRef
White RG, Glynn JR, Orroth KK, et al. Male circumcision for HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa: who, what and when? AIDS (Lond, Engl). 2008;22(14):1841–50.CrossRef
Alsallaq RA, Cash B, Weiss HA, et al. Quantitative assessment of the role of male circumcision in HIV epidemiology at the population level. Epidemics. 2009;1(3):139–52.PubMedCrossRef
Andersson KM, Owens DK, Paltiel AD. Scaling up circumcision programs in southern Africa: the potential impact of gender disparities and changes in condom use behaviors on heterosexual HIV transmission. AIDS Behav. 2011;15(5):938–48.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
Dushoff J, Patocs A, Shi CF. Modeling the population-level effects of male circumcision as an HIV-preventive measure: a gendered perspective. PLoS One. 2011;6(12):28608.CrossRef
Hallett TB, Alsallaq RA, Baeten JM, et al. Will circumcision provide even more protection from HIV to women and men? New estimates of the population impact of circumcision interventions. Sex Transm Infect. 2011;87(2):88–93.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
Hallett TB, Singh K, Smith JA, et al. Understanding the impact of male circumcision interventions on the spread of HIV in southern Africa. PLoS One. 2008;3(5):2212.CrossRef
Njeuhmeli E, Forsythe S, Reed J, et al. Voluntary medical male circumcision: modeling the impact and cost of expanding male circumcision for HIV prevention in eastern and southern Africa. PLoS Med. 2011;8(11):1001132.CrossRef
Agot KE, Kiarie JN, Nguyen HQ, et al. Male circumcision in Siaya and Bondo Districts, Kenya: prospective cohort study to assess behavioral disinhibition following circumcision. J AIDS. 2007;44(1):66–70.
Kong X, Kigozi G, Nalugoda F, et al. Assessment of changes in risk behaviors during 3 years of posttrial follow-up of male circumcision trial participants uncircumcised at trial closure in Rakai, Uganda. Am J Epidemiol. 2012;176(10):875–85.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
Mattson CL, Campbell RT, Bailey RC, et al. Risk compensation is not associated with male circumcision in Kisumu, Kenya: a multi-faceted assessment of men enrolled in a randomized controlled trial. PLoS One. 2008;3(6):2443.CrossRef
Gray R, Kigozi G, Kong X, et al. The effectiveness of male circumcision for HIV prevention and effects on risk behaviors in a posttrial follow-up study. AIDS (Lond, Engl). 2012;26(5):609–15.CrossRef
Siegfried N, Muller M, Deeks JJ, Volmink J. Male circumcision for prevention of heterosexual acquisition of HIV in men. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (Online). 2009;2:CD003362.
World Health Organization (WHO). Progress in scale-up of male circumcision for HIV prevention in Eastern and Southern Africa : focus on service delivery. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2011.
NACC and NASCOP. Kenya AIDS epidemic update 2011. Nairobi, Kenya: 2012.
Progress in voluntary medical male circumcision service provision. Kenya, 2008–2011. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2012;61(47):957–61.
Westercamp M, Agot K, Bailey RC. Population-level changes over two years of a voluntary medical male circumcision program in Kisumu, Kenya: circumcision prevalence, beliefs, and HIV risk behaviors. Ethiopia: ICASA; Addis Ababa; 2011.
Westercamp M, Bailey RC, Bukusi EA, et al. Male circumcision in the general population of Kisumu, Kenya: beliefs about protection, risk behaviors, HIV, and STIs. PLoS One. 2010;5(12):15552.CrossRef
Hedeker D, Gibbons RD, Waternaux C. Sample size estimation for longitudinal designs with attrition: comparing time-related contrasts between two groups. J Educ Behav Stat. 1999;24(1):70–93.CrossRef
Hedeker D, Barlas S. RMASS2: Repeated measures with attrition: sample sizes for 2 groups. Chicago: University of Illinois at Chicago, Division of Epidemiology & Biostatistics; 1999.
SAS Institute Inc. SAS software. Version 9.1.3 ed. Cary, NC; 2008.
Kalichman SC, Eaton L, Pinkerton SD. Male circumcision in HIV prevention. Lancet. 2007;369(9573):1597.PubMedCrossRef
Mad rush to be circumcised. Standard, Kenya; 2008.
Milford C, Smit JA, Beksinska ME, Ramkissoon A. “There’s evidence that this really works and anything that works is good”: views on the introduction of medical male circumcision for HIV prevention in South Africa. AIDS Care. 2012;24(4):496–501.PubMed
Reed JB, Njeuhmeli E, Thomas AG, et al. Voluntary medical male circumcision: an HIV prevention priority for PEPFAR. J AIDS. 2012;15(60):S88–95.
AIDS Vaccine Advocacy Coalition. A new way to protect against HIV? Understanding the results of male circumcision studies for HIV prevention. NewYork: AVAC; 2007.
Bailey RC, Muga R, Poulussen R, Abicht H. The acceptability of male circumcision to reduce HIV infections in Nyanza Province, Kenya. AIDS Care. 2002;14(1):27–40.PubMedCrossRef
Kelly A, Kupul M, Fitzgerald L, et al. “Now we are in a different time; various bad diseases have come.” Understanding men’s acceptability of male circumcision for HIV prevention in a moderate prevalence setting. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:67.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
Ngalande R, Levy J, Kapondo C, Bailey RC. Acceptability of male circumcision for prevention of HIV infection in Malawi. AIDS Behav. 2006;10(4):377–85.PubMedCrossRef
Rain-Taljaard RC, Lagarde E, Taljaard DJ, et al. Potential for an intervention based on male circumcision in a South African town with high levels of HIV infection. AIDS Care. 2003;15(3):315–27.PubMedCrossRef
Alsallaq RA, Abu-Raddad L. Male circumcision is a leading factor behind the differential HIV prevalence in Sub-Saharan Africa (Abstract no. MOPE0254). AIDS 2008—XVII International AIDS Conference; 2008.
Crosby RA, Ricks J, Young A. Condom migration resulting from circumcision, microbicides and vaccines: brief review and methodological considerations. Sex Health. 2012;9(1):96–102.PubMedCrossRef
Hankins C. Male circumcision: implications for women as sexual partners and parents. Reprod Health Matters. 2007;15(29):62–7.PubMedCrossRef
Riess TH, Achieng MM, Otieno S, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bailey RC. “When I was circumcised I was taught certain things”: risk compensation and protective sexual behavior among circumcised men in Kisumu, Kenya. PLoS One. 2010;5(8):12366.CrossRef
Agot KE, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kreiss JK, Weiss NS. Risk of HIV-1 in rural Kenya: a comparison of circumcised and uncircumcised men. Epidemiology. 2004;15(2):157–63.PubMedCrossRef
Republic of Kenya Ministry of Public Health & Sanitation. National strategy for voluntary medical male circumcision. National AIDS & STD Control Programme (NASCOP), Nairobi; 2009.
National AIDS and STI Control Programme. Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS) 2007: preliminary report. Nairobi: Ministry of Health; 2008.
Fonner VA, Denison J, Kennedy CE, O’Reilly K, Sweat M. Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) for changing HIV-related risk behavior in developing countries. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (Online). 2012;9:CD001224.
Festinger L. A theory of cognitive dissonance. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press; 1962.
Grund JM, Hennink MM. A qualitative study of sexual behavior change and risk compensation following adult male circumcision in urban Swaziland. AIDS Care. 2012;24(2):245–51.PubMed
Langhaug LF, Sherr L, Cowan FM. How to improve the validity of sexual behaviour reporting: systematic review of questionnaire delivery modes in developing countries. Trop Med Int Health (TM IH). 2010;15(3):362–81.CrossRef
Mensch BS, Hewett PC, Erulkar AS. The reporting of sensitive behavior by adolescents: a methodological experiment in Kenya. Demography. 2003;40(2):247–68.PubMedCrossRef
Phillips AE, Gomez GB, Boily MC, Garnett GP. A systematic review and meta-analysis of quantitative interviewing tools to investigate self-reported HIV and STI associated behaviours in low- and middle-income countries. Int J Epidemiol. 2010;39(6):1541–55.PubMedCrossRef
Vu LT, Nadol P, Le LC. HIV-Related Risk Behaviors Among the General Population: A Survey Using Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview in 3 Cities in Vietnam. Asia-Pac j pub health/Asia-Pac Academic Consort Pub Health. 2012.