UNAIDS. Global plan towards the elimination of new HIV infections among children by, and keeping their mothers alive. Geneva: UNAIDS; 2015. p. 2011.Google Scholar
Lehman DA, John-Stewart GC, Overbaugh J. Antiretroviral strategies to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV: striking a balance between efficacy, feasibility, and resistance. PLoS Med. 2009;6(10):e1000169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mofenson LM. Protecting the next generation—eliminating perinatal HIV-1 infection. N Engl J Med. 2010;362(24):2316–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
WHO, UNAIDS, UNICEF. Global HIV/AIDS response: epidemic update and health sector progress towards universal access: progress report. Geneva: WHO; 2011. p. 2011.Google Scholar
Stringer EM, Ekouevi DK, Coetzee D, Tih PM, Creek TL, Stinson K, et al. Coverage of nevirapine-based services to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission in 4 African countries. JAMA. 2010;304(3):293–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sripipatana T, Spensley A, Miller A, McIntyre J, Sangiwa G, Sawe F, et al. Site-specific interventions to improve prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus programs in less developed settings. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007;197(3 Suppl):S107–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Padian NS, Holmes CB, McCoy SI, Lyerla R, Bouey PD, Goosby EP. Implementation science for the US President’s emergency plan for AIDS relief (PEPFAR). J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011;56(3):199–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
World Health Organization, UNAIDS, UNICEF. Towards universal access: scaling up priority HIV/AIDS interventions in the health sector: progress report. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2009. p. 2009.Google Scholar
Torpey K, Kabaso M, Kasonde P, Dirks R, Bweupe M, Thompson C, et al. Increasing the uptake of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV services in a resource-limited setting. BMC Health Serv Res. 2010;10:29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Byamugisha R, Tumwine JK, Ndeezi G, Karamagi CA, Tylleskar T. Attitudes to routine HIV counselling and testing, and knowledge about prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV in eastern Uganda: a cross-sectional survey among antenatal attendees. J Int AIDS Soc. 2010;13:52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stringer EM, Chi BH, Chintu N, Creek TL, Ekouevi DK, Coetzee D, et al. Monitoring effectiveness of programmes to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission in lower-income countries. Bull World Health Organ. 2008;86(1):57–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Manzi M, Zachariah R, Teck R, Buhendwa L, Kazima J, Bakali E, et al. High acceptability of voluntary counselling and HIV-testing but unacceptable loss to follow up in a prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programme in rural Malawi: scaling-up requires a different way of acting. Tropical Med Int Health. 2005;10(12):1242–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ferguson L, Grant AD, Watson-Jones D, Kahawita T, Ong’ech JO, Ross DA. Linking women who test HIV-positive in pregnancy-related services to long-term HIV care and treatment services: a systematic review. Trop Med Int Health. 2012;17:564–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kirsten I, Sewangi J, Kunz A, Dugange F, Ziske J, Jordan-Harder B, et al. Adherence to combination prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child-transmission of HIV in Tanzania. PLoS One. 2011;6(6):e21020.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weiss MG, Ramakrishna J. Stigma interventions and research for international health. Lancet. 2006;367(9509):536–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Steward WT, Herek GM, Ramakrishna J, Bharat S, Chandy S, Wrubel J, et al. HIV-related stigma: adapting a theoretical framework for use in India. Soc Sci Med. 2008;67(8):1225–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Earnshaw VA, Chaudoir SR. From conceptualizing to measuring HIV stigma: a review of HIV stigma mechanism measures. AIDS Behav. 2009;13(6):1160–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holzemer WL, Human S, Arudo J, Rosa ME, Hamilton MJ, Corless I, et al. Exploring HIV stigma and quality of life for persons living with HIV infection. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care. 2009;20(3):161–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brickley DB, Le Dung Hanh D, Nguyet LT, Mandel JS, Giang le T, Sohn AH. Community, family, and partner-related stigma experienced by pregnant and postpartum women with HIV in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. AIDS Behav. 2009;13(6):1197–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Turan JM, Bukusi EA, Onono M, Holzemer WL, Miller S, Cohen CR. HIV/AIDS stigma and refusal of HIV testing among pregnant women in Rural Kenya: results from the MAMAS Study. AIDS Behav. 2011;15(6):1111–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown DC, Belue R, Airhihenbuwa CO. HIV and AIDS-related stigma in the context of family support and race in South Africa. Ethn Health. 2010;15(5):441–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kumar A, Hessini L, Mitchell EM. Conceptualising abortion stigma. Cult Health Sex. 2009;11(6):625–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bond V, Chase E, Aggleton P. Stigma, HIV/AIDS and prevention of mother-to-child transmission in Zambia. Eval Program Plan. 2002;25(4):347–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Turan JM, Miller S, Bukusi EA, Sande J, Cohen CR. HIV/AIDS and maternity care in Kenya: how fears of stigma and discrimination affect uptake and provision of labor and delivery services. AIDS Care. 2008;20(8):938–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Strebel A, Crawford M, Shefer T, Cloete A, Henda N, Kaufman M, et al. Social constructions of gender roles, gender-based violence and HIV/AIDS in two communities of the Western Cape, South Africa. Sahara J. 2006;3(3):516–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sandelowski M, Lambe C, Barroso J. Stigma in HIV-positive women. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2004;36(2):122–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chase E, Aggleton P. Stigma, HIV/AIDS, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission. London: UNICEF and The Panos Institute; 2001.Google Scholar
Bunting SM. Sources of stigma associated with women with HIV. ANS Adv Nurs Sci. 1996;19(2):64–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Esplen E. Women and girls living with HIV/AIDS: overview and annotated bibliography. Brighton, UK: BRIDGE in collaboration with the International Community of Women Living with HIV and AIDS (ICW); 2007.
Nyblade LC. Measuring HIV stigma: existing knowledge and gaps. Psychol Health Med. 2006;11(3):335–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kendall T. Reproductive rights violations reported by Mexican women with HIV. Health Hum Rights. 2009;11(2):77–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Rahangdale L, Banandur P, Sreenivas A, Turan JM, Washington R, Cohen CR. Stigma as experienced by women accessing prevention of parent-to-child transmission of HIV services in Karnataka, India. AIDS Care. 2010;22(7):836–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kalichman SC, Simbayi LC, Cloete A, Mthembu PP, Mkhonta RN, Ginindza T. Measuring AIDS stigmas in people living with HIV/AIDS: the internalized AIDS-related stigma scale. AIDS Care. 2009;21(1):87–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simbayi LC, Kalichman S, Strebel A, Cloete A, Henda N, Mqeketo A. Internalized stigma, discrimination, and depression among men and women living with HIV/AIDS in Cape Town, South Africa. Soc Sci Med. 2007;64(9):1823–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vyavaharkar M, Moneyham L, Corwin S, Saunders R, Annang L, Tavakoli A. Relationships between stigma, social support, and depression in HIV-infected African American women living in the rural Southeastern United States. J Assoc Nurs AIDS Care. 2010;21(2):144–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Laher F, Cescon A, Lazarus E, Kaida A, Makongoza M, Hogg RS, et al. Conversations with mothers: exploring reasons for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) failures in the era of programmatic scale-up in Soweto, South Africa. AIDS Behav. 2012;16(1):91–8.
Nguyen TA, Oosterhoff P, Ngoc YP, Wright P, Hardon A. Barriers to access prevention of mother-to-child transmission for HIV positive women in a well-resourced setting in Vietnam. AIDS Res Therapy. 2008;5:7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ujiji OA, Rubenson B, Ilako F, Marrone G, Wamalwa D, Wangalwa G, et al. Is ‘opt-out HIV testing’ a real option among pregnant women in rural districts in Kenya? BMC Public Health. 2011;11:151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rakgoasi SD. HIV counselling and testing of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Botswana, 2001. J Health Popul Nutr. 2005;23(1):58–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Oosterhoff P, Hardon AP, Nguyen TA, Pham NY, Wright P. Dealing with a positive result: routine HIV testing of pregnant women in Vietnam. AIDS Care. 2008;20(6):654–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shetty AK, Marangwanda C, Stranix-Chibanda L, Chandisarewa W, Chirapa E, Mahomva A, et al. The feasibility of preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV using peer counselors in Zimbabwe. AIDS Res Therapy. 2008;5:17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peltzer K, Mlambo G, Phaweni K. Factors determining prenatal HIV testing for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV in Mpumalanga, South Africa. AIDS Behav. 2010;14(5):1115–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Balcha TT, Lecerof SS, Jeppsson AR. Strategic challenges of PMTCT program implementation in Ethiopia. J Int Assoc Phys AIDS Care (Chic). 2011;10(3):187–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kinuthia J, Kiarie JN, Farquhar C, Richardson BA, Nduati R, Mbori-Ngacha D, et al. Uptake of prevention of mother to child transmission interventions in Kenya: health systems are more influential than stigma. J Int AIDS Soc. 2011;14:61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hardon A, Vernooij E, Bongololo-Mbera G, Cherutich P, Desclaux A, Kyaddondo D, et al. Women’s views on consent, counseling and confidentiality in PMTCT: a mixed-methods study in four African countries. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Otieno PA, Kohler PK, Bosire RK, Brown ER, Macharia SW, John-Stewart GC. Determinants of failure to access care in mothers referred to HIV treatment programs in Nairobi, Kenya. AIDS Care. 2010;22(6):729–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Turan JM, Onono M, Cohen CR, Bukusi EA. Stigma and lack of disclosure as barriers to use of maternity and HIV services by HIV-positive pregnant women in rural Kenya. In: APHA 140th annual meeting, October 27–31, San Francisco; 2012.
Muchedzi A, Chandisarewa W, Keatinge J, Stranix-Chibanda L, Woelk G, Mbizvo E, et al. Factors associated with access to HIV care and treatment in a prevention of mother to child transmission programme in urban Zimbabwe. J Int AIDS Soc. 2010;13(1):1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kunihira NR, Nuwaha F, Mayanja R, Peterson S. Barriers to use of antiretroviral drugs in Rakai district of Uganda. Afr Health Sci. 2010;10(2):120–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Mepham S, Zondi Z, Mbuyazi A, Mkhwanazi N, Newell ML. Challenges in PMTCT antiretroviral adherence in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. AIDS Care. 2011;23(6):741–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peltzer K, Mlambo M, Phaswana-Mafuya N, Ladzani R. Determinants of adherence to a single-dose nevirapine regimen for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in Gert Sibande district in South Africa. Acta Paediatr. 2010;99(5):699–704.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Awiti Ujiji O, Ekstrom AM, Ilako F, Indalo D, Wamalwa D, Rubenson B. Reasoning and deciding PMTCT-adherence during pregnancy among women living with HIV in Kenya. Cult Health Sex. 2011;13(7):829–40.
Stanton C, Blanc AK, Croft T, Choi Y. Skilled care at birth in the developing world: progress to date and strategies for expanding coverage. J Biosoc Sci. 2006:1–12.
WHO. Global action for skilled attendants for pregnant women. Geneva: WHO, Family and Community Health, Department of Reproductive Health and Research, 2002.
Ndirangu J, Newell ML, Tanser F, Herbst AJ, Bland R. Decline in early life mortality in a high HIV prevalence rural area of South Africa: evidence of HIV prevention or treatment impact? AIDS. 2010;24(4):593–602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Turan JM, Hatcher AH, Medema-Wijnveen J, Onono M, Miller S, Bukusi EA, et al. The role of HIV-related stigma in utilization of skilled childbirth services in rural Kenya: a prospective mixed-methods study. PLoS Med. 2012;9(8):e1001295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Turan J, Onono M, Bukusi EA, Miller S, Medema-Winjveen J, Cohen CR, editors. Effects of anticipated stigma and subsequent disclosure on utilization of labor and delivery services in Nyanza Province, Kenya. In: 6th IAS conference on HIV pathogenesis, treatment and prevention 2011 17–20 July, Rome, Italy.
Buskens I, Jaffe A, Mkhatshwa H. Infant feeding practices: realities and mind sets of mothers in Southern Africa. AIDS Care. 2007;19(9):1101–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eide M, Myhre M, Lindbaek M, Sundby J, Arimi P, Thior I. Social consequences of HIV-positive women’s participation in prevention of mother-to-child transmission programmes. Patient Educ Couns. 2006;60(2):146–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morgan MC, Masaba RO, Nyikuri M, Thomas TK. Factors affecting breastfeeding cessation after discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. AIDS Care. 2010;22(7):866–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sibeko L, Coutsoudis A, Nzuza S, Gray-Donald K. Mothers’ infant feeding experiences: constraints and supports for optimal feeding in an HIV-impacted urban community in South Africa. Public Health Nutr. 2009;12(11):1983–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Desclaux A, Alfieri C. Counseling and choosing between infant-feeding options: overall limits and local interpretations by health care providers and women living with HIV in resource-poor countries (Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon). Soc Sci Med. 2009;69(6):821–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Onono MA, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Turan JM. HIV serostatus and disclosure: implications on infant feeding practice in rural South Nyanza, Kenya. In: 16th international conference on AIDS & STIs in Africa, December 4–8, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011.
Kiragu K, Schenk K, Murugi J, Sarna A. “If you build it, will they come?” Kenya healthy start pediatric HIV study: a diagnostic study investigating barriers to HIV treatment and care among children. Washington, DC: The Population Council; 2008.Google Scholar
Peltzer K, Mlambo G. Factors determining HIV viral testing of infants in the context of mother-to-child transmission. Acta Paediatr. 2010;99(4):590–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cook RE, Ciampa PJ, Sidat M, Blevins M, Burlison J, Davidson MA, et al. Predictors of successful early infant diagnosis of HIV in a rural district hospital in Zambezia, Mozambique. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011;56(4):e104–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Delvaux T, Elul B, Ndagije F, Munyana E, Roberfroid D, Asiimwe A. Determinants of nonadherence to a single-dose nevirapine regimen for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in Rwanda. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009;50(2):223–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alcorn K. Malawi plans ‘test and treat’ approach for pregnant women to cut mother-to-child HIV transmission. http://www.aidsmap.com/Malawi-plans-test-and-treat-approach-for-pregnant-women-to-cut-mother-to-child-HIV-transmission/page/1494940/
(2010). Accessed Nov 4 2011.
Jani IV, Sitoe NE, Alfai ER, Chongo PL, Quevedo JI, Rocha BM, et al. Effect of point-of-care CD4 cell count tests on retention of patients and rates of antiretroviral therapy initiation in primary health clinics: an observational cohort study. Lancet. 2011;378(9802):1572–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thorsen VC, Sundby J, Martinson F. Potential initiators of HIV-related stigmatization: ethical and programmatic challenges for PMTCT programs. Dev World Bioeth. 2008;8(1):43–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greene K, Derlega VJ, Yep GA, Petronio S. Privacy and disclosure of HIV in interpersonal relationships: a sourcebook for researchers and practitioners. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers; 2003.
Desgrées-du-Loû A, Brou H, Traore AT, Djohan G, Becquet R, Leroy V. From prenatal HIV testing of the mother to prevention of sexual HIV transmission within the couple. Soc Sci Med. 2009;69(6):892–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Orne-Gliemann J, Desgrees-Du-Lou A. The involvement of men within prenatal HIV counselling and testing. Facts, constraints and hopes. AIDS. 2008;22(18):2555–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Katz DA, Kiarie JN, John-Stewart GC, Richardson BA, John FN, Farquhar C. HIV testing men in the antenatal setting: understanding male non-disclosure. Int J STD AIDS. 2009;20(11):765–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bond VA. “It is not an easy decision on HIV, especially in Zambia”: opting for silence, limited disclosure and implicit understanding to retain a wider identity. AIDS Care. 2010;22(Suppl 1):6–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Medley A, Garcia-Moreno C, McGill S, Maman S. Rates, barriers and outcomes of HIV serostatus disclosure among women in developing countries: implications for prevention of mother-to-child transmission programmes. Bull World Health Organ. 2004;82(4):299–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Medley AM, Kennedy CE, Lunyolo S, Sweat MD. Disclosure outcomes, coping strategies, and life changes among women living with HIV in Uganda. Qual Health Res. 2009;19(12):1744–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Obermeyer CM, Baijal P, Pegurri E. Facilitating HIV disclosure across diverse settings: a review. Am J Public Health. 2011;101(6):1011–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dlamini PS, Kohi TW, Uys LR, Phetlhu RD, Chirwa ML, Naidoo JR, et al. Verbal and physical abuse and neglect as manifestations of HIV/AIDS stigma in five African countries. Public Health Nurs. 2007;24(5):389–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Watts C, Zimmerman C, Eckhaus T, Nyblade L. Modelling the impact of stigma on HIV and AIDS programmes: preliminary projections for mother-to-child transmission. Washington, DC: International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine; 2010.
Prudden H, Nyblade L, Dzialowy N, Foss A, Black V, Wallace N, et al. Modelling the impact of stigma on the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission for a setting in South Africa. Washington, DC: Health Policy Project and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine; 2013 (forthcoming).
Welty TK, Bulterys M, Welty ER, Tih PM, Ndikintum G, Nkuoh G, et al. Integrating prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission into routine antenatal care: the key to program expansion in Cameroon. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005;40(4):486–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sherr L. Literature review on program strategies and models of continuity of HIV/maternal, newborn, and child health care for HIV-positive mothers and their HIV-positive/-exposed children. Arlington, VA: USAID’s AIDS Support and Technical Assistance Resources, AIDSTAR-One, Task Order 1; 2012.
Winestone LE, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Kwaro D, Schmidt NC, Turan JM. Acceptability and feasibility of integration of HIV care services into antenatal clinics in rural Kenya: a qualitative provider interview study. Glob Public Health. 2012;7(2):149–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pulerwitz J, Michaelis A, Weiss E, Brown L, Mahendra V. Reducing HIV-related stigma: lessons learned from horizons research and programs. Public Health Rep. 2010;125(2):272–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Carr D, Eckhaus T, Brady L, Watts C, Zimmerman C, Nyblade L. Scaling up the response to HIV stigma and discrimination. Washington, DC: International Center for Research on Women; 2010.Google Scholar
Nyblade L, Stangl A, Weiss E, Ashburn K. Combating HIV stigma in health care settings: what works? J Int AIDS Soc. 2009;12:15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sengupta S, Banks B, Jonas D, Miles MS, Smith GC. HIV interventions to reduce HIV/AIDS stigma: a systematic review. AIDS Behav. 2011;15(6):1075–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
mothers2mothers. Where we work. 2012. http://www.m2m.org/what-we-do/where-we-work.html
. Accessed 13 April 2012.