Original Paper

AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 17, Issue 7, pp 2479-2489

High Uptake of HIV Testing in a Cohort of Male Injection Drug Users in Delhi, India: Prevalence and Correlates of HIV Infection

  • Avina SarnaAffiliated withPopulation Council Email author 
  • , Waimar TunAffiliated withPopulation Council
  • , Vartika SharmaAffiliated withPopulation Council
  • , Mary SebastianAffiliated withPopulation Council
  • , Ira MadanAffiliated withSahara Centre for Residential Care and Rehabilitation
  • , Amita YadavAffiliated withPopulation Council
  • , Meredith SheehyAffiliated withOne Dag Hammarskjold Plaza
  • , Dean LewisAffiliated withSahara Centre for Residential Care and Rehabilitation
  • , Ibou ThiorAffiliated withARISE Project, PATH

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Abstract

We report baseline findings from a longitudinal cohort study to examine HIV incidence, high-risk injection and sexual behaviors of 3,792 male injection drug users (IDUs) in Delhi. The majority (95.4 %) accepted HIV testing; HIV prevalence was 21.9 %. In multivariate analysis, belonging to states adjacent to Delhi (AOR: 1.23; 95 % CI: 1.07–1.52), earning INR 500–1,500 (AOR: 2.38; 95 % CI: 1.43–3.96); duration of drug use 2–5 years (AOR: 2.02; 95 % CI: 1.09–3.73), 6–10 years (AOR: 2.81; 95 % CI: 1.55–5.11), ≥11 years (AOR: 3.35; 95 % CI: 1.84–6.11); prior HIV testing (AOR: 1.60; 95 % CI: 1.35–1.91), self-reported risky-injection behavior (AOR: 1.60; 95 % CI: 1.33–1.92), and utilization of harm-reduction services (AOR: 1.32; 95 % CI: 1.11–1.58) were positively associated with HIV infection. Alcohol use ≤2 times/week (AOR: 0.67; 95 % CI: 0.55–0.82) or ≥3 times/week (AOR: 0.74; 95 % CI: 0.54–1.01), unit increase in age (AOR: 0.99; 95 % CI: 0.98–1.00), ≥7 years of schooling (AOR: 0.82; 95 % CI: 0.66–1.02) and unsafe sex with any female partner (AOR: 0.69; 95 % CI: 0.55–0.86) were negatively associated with HIV infection. HIV prevalence remains high among male IDUs in Delhi. HIV prevention programs should include comprehensive package of services for IDUs.

Keywords

Injection drug user HIV Harm reduction Sexual behavior Unsafe injection practices