Sleep, Function and HIV: A Multi-Method Assessment
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- Gamaldo, C.E., Spira, A.P., Hock, R.S. et al. AIDS Behav (2013) 17: 2808. doi:10.1007/s10461-012-0401-0
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Amongst HIV+ individuals, sleep complaints have been recognized as common and debilitating; but have rarely been formally assessed or compared to controls using validated sleep tools. In this study we conducted structured interview for sleep disorders, polysomnography, 2-week home (ambulatory) monitoring and validated sleep/functional questionnaires. 56 % (14/25) of HIV+ participants and 0 % (0/19) of controls fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for insomnia. Insomnia severity scores were correlated with fatigue and anxiety symptoms. Sleep latency on 2-week actigraphy was significantly longer (P = 0.027) for HIV+ participants and associated with lower MOS-HIV scores. Sleep quality was significantly reduced in HIV+ participants based on validated questionnaires of overall sleep quality (P = 0.0017) and insomnia related symptoms (P < 0.001) even after adjusting for education and affective symptoms. HIV+ individuals are suffering with under-diagnosed sleep disorders that are negatively impacting quality of life and functional capabilities. Further studies aimed at improving recognition of sleep disorders and implementation of efficacious medical and behavioral treatment could improve functioning and disease management.