Correlates of Retention in HIV Care After Release from Jail: Results from a Multi-site Study Authors
First Online: 18 November 2012 DOI:
10.1007/s10461-012-0372-1 Cite this article as: Althoff, A.L., Zelenev, A., Meyer, J.P. et al. AIDS Behav (2013) 17: 156. doi:10.1007/s10461-012-0372-1 Abstract
Retention in care is key to effective HIV treatment, but half of PLWHA in the US are continuously engaged in care. Incarcerated individuals are an especially challenging population to retain, and empiric data specific to jail detainees is lacking. We prospectively evaluated correlates of retention in care for 867 HIV-infected jail detainees enrolled in a 10-site demonstration project. Sustained retention in care was defined as having a clinic visit during each quarter in the 6 month post-release period. The following were independently associated with retention: being male (AOR = 2.10,
p ≤ 0.01), heroin use (AOR 1.49, p = 0.04), having an HIV provider (AOR 1.67, p = 0.02), and receipt of services: discharge planning (AOR 1.50, p = 0.02) and disease management session (AOR 2.25, p ≤ 0.01) during incarceration; needs assessment (AOR 1.59, p = 0.02), HIV education (AOR 2.03, p ≤ 0.01), and transportation assistance (AOR 1.54, p = 0.02) after release. Provision of education and case management services improve retention in HIV care after release from jail. Keywords HIV infection Jail Retention in care Adherence Secondary prevention References
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Advancing HIV prevention initiative. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2005.
Gardner EM, McLees MP, Steiner JF, Del Rio C, Burman WJ. The spectrum of engagement in HIV care and its relevance to test-and-treat strategies for prevention of HIV infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(6):793–800.
Lima VD, Johnston K, Hogg RS, Levy AR, Harrigan PR, Anema A, et al. Expanded access to highly active antiretroviral therapy: a potentially powerful strategy to curb the growth of the HIV epidemic. J Infect Dis. 2008;198(1):59–67.
Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. Getting to zero. 2010.
Marks G, Gardner LI, Craw J, Crepaz N. Entry and retention in medical care among HIV-diagnosed persons: a meta-analysis. AIDS. 2010;24(17):2665–78.
Giordano TP, Gifford AL, White AC, Suarez-Almazor ME, Rabeneck L, Hartman C, et al. Retention in care: a challenge to survival with HIV infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44(11):1493–9.
Chen NE, Meyer JP, Avery AK, Draine J, Flanigan TP, Lincoln T, et al. Adherence to HIV treatment and care among previously homeless jail detainees. AIDS Behav. 2011. doi:
Meyer JP, Chen NE, Springer SA. HIV treatment in the criminal justice system: critical knowledge and intervention gaps. AIDS Res Treat. 2011;2011:680617.
Springer SA, Pesanti E, Hodges J, Macura T, Doros G, Altice FL. Effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected prisoners: reincarceration and the lack of sustained benefit after release to the community. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38(12):1754–60.
Stephenson BL, Wohl DA, Golin CE, Tien HC, Stewart P, Kaplan AH. Effect of release from prison and re-incarceration on the viral loads of HIV-infected individuals. Public Health Rep. 2005;120(1):84–8.
Baillargeon JG, Giordano TP, Harzke AJ, Baillargeon G, Rich JD, Paar DP. Enrollment in outpatient care among newly released prison inmates with HIV infection. Public Health Rep. 2010;125(Suppl 1):64–71.
Baillargeon J, Giordano TP, Rich JD, Wu ZH, Wells K, Pollock BH, et al. Accessing antiretroviral therapy following release from prison. JAMA. 2009;301(8):848–57.
Baillargeon J, Giordano TP, Harzke AJ, Spaulding AC, Wu ZH, Grady JJ, et al. Predictors of reincarceration and disease progression among released HIV-infected inmates. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2010;24(6):389–94.
Pai NP, Estes M, Moodie EE, Reingold AL, Tulsky JP. The impact of antiretroviral therapy in a cohort of HIV infected patients going in and out of the San Francisco county jail. PLoS One. 2009;4(9):e7115.
Draine J, Ahuja D, Altice FL, Arriola KJ, Avery AK, Beckwith CG, et al. Strategies to enhance linkages between care for HIV/AIDS in jail and community settings. AIDS Care. 2011;23(3):366–77.
Department of Health and Human Services. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-1 infected adults and adolescents. 2011.
Andersen RM. Revisiting the behavioral model and access to medical care: does it matter? J Health Soc Behav. 1995;36(1):1–10.
Gelberg L, Andersen RM, Leake BD. The Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations: application to medical care use and outcomes for homeless people. Health Serv Res. 2000;34(6):1273–302.
McLellan AT, Cacciola JC, Alterman AI, Rikoon SH, Carise D. The addiction severity index at 25: origins, contributions and transitions. Am J Addict. 2006;15(2):113–24.
McLellan AT, Luborsky L, Woody GE, O’Brien CP. An improved diagnostic evaluation instrument for substance abuse patients. The Addiction Severity Index. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1980;168(1):26–33.
McGahan P, Griffith J, Parente R, McLellan T. Addiction severity index composite score manual. The University of Pennsylvania/Veterans Administration Center for Studies of Addiction. 1986.
Calsyn DA, Saxon AJ, Bush KR, Howell DN, Baer JS, Sloan KL, et al. The Addiction Severity Index medical and psychiatric composite scores measure similar domains as the SF-36 in substance-dependent veterans: concurrent and discriminant validity. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2004;76(2):165–71.
de Voux A, Spaulding AC, Beckwith C, Avery A, Williams C, Messina LC, et al. Early identification of HIV: empirical support for jail-based screening. PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e37603.
Macgowan R, Margolis A, Richardson-Moore A, Wang T, Lalota M, French PT, et al. Voluntary rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing in jails. Sex Transm Dis. 2009;36(Suppl 2):S9–13.
Jackman S. Estimation and inference via Bayesian simulation: an introduction to Markov Chain Monte Carlo. Am J Pol Sci. 2000;44:375–404.
Manfred J, editor. On testing the missing at random assumption. Berlin: Springer; 2006.
Enders CK. Applied missing data analysis. New York: Guilford Press; 2010.
Fu J, Herme M, Wickersham J, Zelenev A, Althoff A, Zaller N, et al. Understanding the revolving door: factors associated with recidivism among HIV-infected jail detainees. AIDS Behav. 2012.
Aberg JA, Kaplan JE, Libman H, Emmanuel P, Anderson JR, Stone VE, et al. Primary care guidelines for the management of persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus: 2009 update by the HIV medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;49(5):651–81.
DHHS Panel on Clinical Practices for Treatment of HIV Infection. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-infected adults and adolescents. 2009.
Vlahov D, Putnam S. From corrections to communities as an HIV priority. J Urban Health. 2006;83(3):339–48.
Stephenson BL, Wohl DA, McKaig R, Golin CE, Shain L, Adamian M, et al. Sexual behaviours of HIV-seropositive men and women following release from prison. Int J STD AIDS. 2006;17(2):103–8.
Cohen MS, Chen YQ, McCauley M, Gamble T, Hosseinipour MC, Kumarasamy N, et al. Prevention of HIV-1 infection with early antiretroviral therapy. N Engl J Med. 2011;365(6):493–505.
Stone VE. HIV/AIDS in women and racial/ethnic minorities in the U.S. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2012;14(1):53–60.
Maruschak L. HIV in prisons, 2007–2008. U.S. Department of Justice: Bureau of Justice Statistics; 2009, contract no. NCJ 228307.
Jones AS, Lillie-Blanton M, Stone VE, Ip EH, Zhang Q, Wilson TE, et al. Multi-dimensional risk factor patterns associated with non-use of highly active antiretroviral therapy among human immunodeficiency virus-infected women. Womens Health Issues. 2010;20(5):335–42.
Lemly DC, Shepherd BE, Hulgan T, Rebeiro P, Stinnette S, Blackwell RB, et al. Race and sex differences in antiretroviral therapy use and mortality among HIV-infected persons in care. J Infect Dis. 2009;199(7):991–8.
Meditz AL, MaWhinney S, Allshouse A, Feser W, Markowitz M, Little S, et al. Sex, race, and geographic region influence clinical outcomes following primary HIV-1 infection. J Infect Dis. 2011;203(4):442–51.
Mugavero MJ, Lin HY, Willig JH, Westfall AO, Ulett KB, Routman JS, et al. Missed visits and mortality among patients establishing initial outpatient HIV treatment. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48(2):248–56.
Hall HI, Gray KM, Tang T, Li J, Shouse L, Mermin J. Retention in care of adults and adolescents living with HIV in 13 U.S. areas. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012;60(1):77–82.
Springer SA, Chen S, Altice F. Depression and symptomatic response among HIV-infected drug users enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of directly administered antiretroviral therapy. AIDS Care. 2009;21(8):976–83.
Gonzalez JS, Batchelder AW, Psaros C, Safren SA. Depression and HIV/AIDS treatment nonadherence: a review and meta-analysis. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011;58(2):181–7.
Traeger L, O’Cleirigh C, Skeer MR, Mayer KH, Safren SA. Risk factors for missed HIV primary care visits among men who have sex with men. J Behav Med. 2012;35(5):548–56.
James DJ. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report: Profile of Jail Inmates, 2002. U.S. Department of Justice; 2004, contract no. NCJ 201932.
Altice FL, Kamarulzaman A, Soriano VV, Schechter M, Friedland GH. Treatment of medical, psychiatric, and substance-use comorbidities in people infected with HIV who use drugs. Lancet. 2010;376(9738):367–87.
Westergaard RP, Kirk GD, Richesson DR, Galai N, Mehta SH. Incarceration predicts virologic failure for HIV-infected injection drug users receiving antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;53(7):725–31.
Milloy MJ, Kerr T, Buxton J, Rhodes T, Guillemi S, Hogg R, et al. Dose-response effect of incarceration events on nonadherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy among injection drug users. J Infect Dis. 2011;203(9):1215–21.
Springer SA, Spaulding AC, Meyer JP, Altice FL. Public health implications for adequate transitional care for HIV-infected prisoners: five essential components. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;53(5):469–79.
Vlassova N, Angelino AF, Treisman GJ. Update on mental health issues in patients with HIV infection. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2009;11(2):163–9.
Gardner LI, Metsch LR, Anderson-Mahoney P, Loughlin AM, del Rio C, Strathdee S, et al. Efficacy of a brief case management intervention to link recently diagnosed HIV-infected persons to care. AIDS. 2005;19(4):423–31.
Thompson MA, Mugavero MJ, Amico KR, Cargill VA, Chang LW, Gross R, et al. Guidelines for improving entry into and retention in care and antiretroviral adherence for persons with HIV: evidence-based recommendations from an international association of physicians in AIDS care panel. Ann Intern Med. 2012;156(11):817–33.
Flanigan TP, Kim JY, Zierler S, Rich J, Vigilante K, Bury-Maynard D. A prison release program for HIV-positive women: linking them to health services and community follow-up. Am J Public Health. 1996;86(6):886–7.
Hammett T, Kennedy S, Kuck S. National survey of infectious diseases in correctional facilities’ HIV and sexually transmitted diseases: US Department of Justice (unpublished data). Department of Justice; 2007, contract no. NCJ 217736.
Zaller ND, Fu JJ, Nunn A, Beckwith CG. Linkage to care for HIV-infected heterosexual men in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(Suppl 2):S223–30.
PubMed CrossRef Copyright information
© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012