, Volume 15, Issue 1, pp 65-74

Correlates of HIV Risk Among Injecting Drug Users in Sixteen Ukrainian Cities

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We present findings from a HIV survey using respondent driven sampling among 3,711 injecting drug users (IDUs) in 16 cities in Ukraine in 2008. Eligible participants were males and females who injected drugs in the past 1 month, ≥16 years and lived/worked in their respective interview area. The impact of injecting and sexual risk behaviors on HIV-infection were analyzed using four logistic models. Overall HIV prevalence was 32%. In the sexual risk model, paying for sex in the past 3 months and condom use during last sex increased the odds of HIV infection. Being female, having greater than 3 years of injection drug use, always sharing equipment and using alcohol with drugs in the past month remained significant in all four models. These findings indicate the urgent need to scale up peer education, needle exchange and methadone substitution programs for IDUs with specific programs targeting the needs of female injectors