, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 25-47
Date: 18 Aug 2006

A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Interventions to Reduce HIV Risk Behaviors of Hispanics in the United States and Puerto Rico

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This systematic review examines the overall efficacy of HIV behavioral interventions designed to reduce HIV risk behaviors or incident sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among Hispanics residing in the United States or Puerto Rico. Data from 20 randomized and nonrandomized trials (N = 6,173 participants) available through January 2006 were included in this review. Interventions successfully reduced the odds of unprotected sex and number of sex partners, increased the odds of condom use, and decreased the odds of acquiring new STD infections. Interventions successful in reducing the odds of any sex risk behavior used non-peer deliverers; included ≥4 intervention sessions; taught condom use or problem solving skills; or addressed barriers to condom use, sexual abstinence, or peer norms. Interventions that included the Hispanic cultural belief of machismo or those developed based on ethnographic interviews were successful in reducing the odds of sex risk behaviors among non-drug users. Interventions targeting injection drug users (IDUs; N = 3,569) significantly reduced the odds of injection drug use and the odds of sharing cotton or cookers, but did not significantly reduce the odds of engaging in risky sex behavior or needle sharing. Further development of culturally appropriate HIV prevention interventions for Hispanic populations, particularly men and persons living with HIV, are warranted.