Original Article

AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 10, Issue 4, pp 351-360

First online:

Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

How Uganda Reversed Its HIV Epidemic

  • Gary SlutkinAffiliated withUniversity of Illinois
  • , Sam OkwareAffiliated withUganda Ministry of Health
  • , Warren NaamaraAffiliated withUNAIDS
  • , Don SutherlandAffiliated withWorld Health Organization
  • , Donna FlanaganAffiliated withSpokane Washington
  • , Michel CaraelAffiliated withFree University of Brussels
  • , Erik BlasAffiliated withWorld Health Organization
  • , Paul DelayAffiliated withUNAIDS
  • , Daniel TarantolaAffiliated withUniversity of New South Wales


Uganda is one of only two countries in the world that has successfully reversed the course of its HIV epidemic. There remains much controversy about how Uganda's HIV prevalence declined in the 1990s. This article describes the prevention programs and activities that were implemented in Uganda during critical years in its HIV epidemic, 1987 to 1994. Multiple resources were aggregated to fuel HV prevention campaigns at multiple levels to a far greater degree than in neighboring countries. We conclude that the reversed direction of the HIV epidemic in Uganda was the direct result of these interventions and that other countries in the developing world could similarly prevent or reverse the escalation of HIV epidemics with greater availability of HIV prevention resources, and well designed programs that take efforts to a critical breadth and depth of effort.


AIDS Uganda Prevention Epidemic