Lack of interaction between sensing–intuitive learning styles and problem-first versus information-first instruction: a randomized crossover trial
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Adaptation to learning styles has been proposed to enhance learning.
We hypothesized that learners with sensing learning style would perform better using a problem-first instructional method while intuitive learners would do better using an information-first method.
Randomized, controlled, crossover trial.
Resident ambulatory clinics.
123 internal medicine residents.
Four Web-based modules in ambulatory internal medicine were developed in both “didactic” (information first, followed by patient problem and questions) and “problem” (case and questions first, followed by information) format.
Knowledge posttest, format preference, learning style (Index of Learning Styles).
Knowledge scores were similar between the didactic (mean ± standard error, 83.0 ± 0.8) and problem (82.3 ± 0.8) formats (p = .42; 95% confidence interval [CI] for difference, −2.3 to 0.9). There was no difference between formats in regression slopes of knowledge scores on sensing-intuitive scores (p = .63) or in analysis of knowledge scores by styles classification (sensing 82.5 ± 1.0, intermediate 83.7 ± 1.2, intuitive 81.0 ± 1.5; p = .37 for main effect, p = .59 for interaction with format). Format preference was neutral (3.2 ± 0.2 [1 strongly prefers didactic, 6 strongly prefers problem], p = .12), and there was no association between learning styles and preference (p = .44). Formats were similar in time to complete modules (43.7 ± 2.2 vs 43.2 ± 2.2 minutes, p = .72).
Starting instruction with a problem (versus employing problems later on) may not improve learning outcomes. Sensing and intuitive learners perform similarly following problem-first and didactic-first instruction. Results may apply to other instructional media.
- Boshuizen, H. P. A., Machiels-Bongaerts, M., van de Wiel, M. W. J., & Schmidt, H. G. (1998). Learning from multiple cases: A new paradigm for investigating the effects of clinical experience on knowledge restructuring and knowledge acquisition. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, April 1998.
- Bostrum, R. P., Olfman, L., & Sein, M. K. (1990). The importance of learning style in end-user training. MIS Quarterly, 14, 101–119. CrossRef
- Bransford, J. D., Brown, A. L., Cocking, R. R., & for the Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning and the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education of the National Research Council (Eds.). (2000). How people learn: brain, mind, experience, and school. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
- Brown, J. S., Collins, A., & Duguid, P. (1989). Situated learning and the culture of learning. Education Researcher, 18, 32–42.
- Case, S. M., & Swanson, D. B. (2001). Constructing written test questions for the basic and clinical sciences (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: National Board of Medical Examiners.
- Clark, R. E. (2005). Five common but questionable principles of multimedia learning. In R. E. Mayer (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning (pp. 97–115). New York: Cambridge University Press.
- Cook, D. A. (2005a). Learning and cognitive styles in Web-based learning: Theory, evidence, and application. Academic Medicine, 80, 266–278. CrossRef
- Cook, D. A. (2005b). Reliability and validity of scores from the Index of Learning Styles. Academic Medicine, 80(10 suppl), S97–S101. CrossRef
- Cook, D. A. (2005c). The research we still are not doing: An agenda for the study of computer-based learning. Academic Medicine, 80, 541–548. CrossRef
- Cook, D. A., Dupras, D. M., Thompson, W. G., & Pankratz, V. S. (2005). Web-based learning in residents’ continuity clinics: A randomized, controlled trial. Academic Medicine, 80, 90–97. CrossRef
- Cook, D. A., Gelula, M. H., Dupras, D. M., & Schwartz, A. (2007). Instructional methods and cognitive and learning styles in web-based learning: Report of two randomised trials. Medical Education, 41, 897–905. CrossRef
- Cook, D. A., & Smith, A. J. (2006). Validity of Index of Learning Styles scores: Multitrait–multimethod comparison with three cognitive/learning style instruments. Medical Education, 40, 900–907. CrossRef
- Cook, D. A., Thompson, W. G., Thomas, K. G., Thomas, M. R., & Pankratz, V. S. (2006). Impact of self-assessment questions and learning styles in web-based learning: A randomized, controlled, crossover trial. Academic Medicine, 81, 231–238. CrossRef
- Cronbach, L. J., & Snow, R. E. (1977). Aptitudes and instructional methods: A handbook for research on interactions. New York: Irvington Publishers.
- Curry, L. (2000). Review of learning style, studying approach, and instructional preference research in medical education. In R. J. Riding & S. G. Rayner (Eds.), International perspectives on individual differences, volume 1: Cognitive styles (pp. 239–276). Stamford, CT: Ablex Publishing Corporation.
- Felder, R. M. (1993). Reaching the second tier: Learning and teaching styles in college science education. Journal of College Science Teaching, 23, 286–290.
- Felder, R. M., & Silverman, L. K. (1988). Learning and teaching styles in engineering education. Journal of Engineering Education, 78(7), 674–681.
- Felder, R. M., & Soloman, B. A. (2007). Index of learning styles. Retrieved July 17, 2007, from http://www.ncsu.edu/felder-public/ILSpage.html.
- Fleming, D. E., Mauriello, S. M., McKaig, R. G., & Ludlow, J. B. (2003). A comparison of slide/audiotape and web-based instructional formats for teaching normal intraoral radiographic anatomy. Journal of Dental Hygiene, 77, 27–35.
- Fraenkel, J. R., & Wallen, N. E. (2003). How to design and evaluate research in education. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
- Hart, G. (1995). Learning styles and hypertext: Exploring user attitudes. Australian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education, Melbourne.
- Kolb, D. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
- Lowdermilk, D. L., & Hopkins Fishel, A. (1991). Computer simulations as a measure of nursing students’ decision-making skills. Journal of Nursing Education, 30, 34–39.
- Lynch, T. G., Steele, D. J., Johnson Palensky, J. E., Lacy, N. L., & Duffy, S. W. (2001). Learning preferences, computer attitudes, and test performance with computer-aided instruction. American Journal of Surgery, 181, 368–371. CrossRef
- Melara, G. E. (1996). Investigating learning styles on different hypertext environments: Hierarchical-like and network-like structures. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 14, 313–328. CrossRef
- Merrill, M. D. (2002). Instructional strategies and learning styles: Which takes precedence? In R. Reiser & J. V. Dempsey (Eds.), Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (pp. 99–106). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall.
- Norman, G. (2005). Research in clinical reasoning: Past history and current trends. Medical Education, 39, 418–427. CrossRef
- Patel, V. L., Groen, G. J., & Norman, G. R. (1991). Effects of conventional and problem-based medical curricula on problem solving. Academic Medicine, 66, 380–389. CrossRef
- Reed, W. M., Oughton, J. M., Ayersman, D. J., Ervin, J. R., Jr., & Giessler, S. F. (2000). Computer experience, learning style, and hypermedia navigation. Computers in Human Behavior, 16, 609–628. CrossRef
- Ross, B. H. (1987). This is like that: The use of earlier problems and the separation of similarity effects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 13, 629–639. CrossRef
- Rourke, L., & Lysynchuk, L. (2000). The influence of learning style on achievement in hypertext. Annual Meeting of the American Education Research Association, New Orleans, LA, April 24–28, 2000.
- Lack of interaction between sensing–intuitive learning styles and problem-first versus information-first instruction: a randomized crossover trial
Advances in Health Sciences Education
Volume 14, Issue 1 , pp 79-90
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer Netherlands
- Additional Links
- Cognitive style
- Instructional method
- Learning style
- Medical education
- Problem-based learning
- Web-based learning
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Division of General Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Baldwin 4A, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA
- 2. Division of Preventive, Occupational and Aerospace Medicine, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA
- 3. Division Primary Care Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA