Land-use system modeling and analysis of shaded cacao production in Belize
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Shaded cacao (Theobroma cacao) cultivation is a tropical land-use that has potential to reduce pressure on the forest and provide additional income to smallholder growers. A land-use system (LUS) model was formulated to represent the economic returns derived from shaded cacao production practiced by smallholders in the Toledo district of Belize. Sixty scenarios were tested to elicit response of net-present-value (NPV), returns to labor, and annual returns to land (ARTL) to individual changes in 10 system parameters. Further scenarios tested the combined interactions between hardwood shade tree type, planting density, time to harvest hardwoods, cacao cultivation practice, and expected output. As a modeling exercise, LUS analysis highlights system components that government agencies, donors, NGOs, extension agents, and smallholders should target with policies, agri-silvi- culture projects, and further research. Results identify more favorable credit, labor-saving technology, better shade-management practices, grafting, and incorporating non-hardwood shade trees and laurel (Cordia alliadora) as interventions that could improve cacao financial performance and encourage adoption. At present, the model cannot predict whether smallholders would respond to recommendations and invest in shaded cacao cultivation in lieu of alternative agricultural land-uses or off-farm employment.
- Beer, J., Muschler, R., Kass, D., Somarriba, E. (1998) Shade management in coffee and cacao plantations. Agroforestry Systems 38: pp. 139-164
- Browder, J.O., Matricardi, E.A.T., Abdala, W.S. (1996) Is sustainable tropical timber production financially viable? A comparative.. Ecological Economics-Amsterdam 16: pp. 147-159
- Duguma, B., Gockowski, J., Bakala, J. (2001) Smallholder cacao (Theobroma cacao Linn.) cultivation in agroforestry systems of West and Central Africa: challenges and opportunities. Agroforestry Systems 51: pp. 177-188 CrossRef
- Emch, M. (2003) The human ecology of Mayan cacao farming in Belize. Human Ecology 31: pp. 111-131 CrossRef
- Glor, R.E., Flecker, A.S., Benard, M.F., Power, A.G. (2001) Lizard diversity and agricultural disturbance in a Caribbean forest landscape.. Biodiversity and Conservation 10: pp. 711-723 CrossRef
- IMF. 2002. Belize: Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix. http:// www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/scr/2001/cr01151.pdf (Accessed February 2002).
- Jaramillo, C.F., Kelly, T. Deforestation and property rights. In: Keipi, K. eds. (1999) Forest Resource Policy in Latin America.. Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 111-134
- Johns, N.D. (1999) Conservation in Brazil’s chocolate forest: the unlikely persistence of the traditional cocoa agroecosystem. Environmental Management 23: pp. 31-47 CrossRef
- Laird S.A., Obialor C. and Skinner E.A. 1996. An introductory handbook to cocoa certification: A feasibility study and regional profile of West Africa. Rainforest Alliance, New York. ww- w.rainforest-alliance.org.
- Levasseur, V., Oliver, A. (2000) The farming system and traditional agroforesty systems in the Maya community of San Jose, Belize. Agroforesty Systems 49: pp. 275-288
- Macilwain, C. (1998) When rhetoric hits reality in debate on bio- prospecting. Nature 392: pp. 535-540
- Mayhew, J.E., Newton, A.C. (1998) The silviculture ofmahogan.. CAB International, Wallingford, UK
- Ostuka, K., Place, F. Land tenure and the management of land and trees: A comparative study of Asia and Africa. In: Lee, D.R., Barrett, C.B. eds. (2001) Tradeoffs or Synergies?: Agricultural Intensification, Economic Development, and the Environment.. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, pp. 285-301
- Ramirez, O.A., Somarriba, E., Ludewigs, T., Ferreira, P. (2001) Financial returns, stability and risk of cacao-plantain-timber agroforestry systems in Central America. Agroforestry Systems 51: pp. 141-154
- Rice, R.A., Greenberg, R. (2000) Cacao cultivation and the conservation of biological diversity. Ambio 29: pp. 167-173
- Ruf, F. (1998) Cocoa: from deforestation to reforestation. First International Sustainable Cocoa Workshop, Panama City, Panama
- Sams G. 2001. Sustainable chocolate: A practical business example. Ecology and Farming January-April: 26–28.
- Steinberg, M. (1998) Political ecology and cultural change: impacts on swidden-fallow agroforestry practices among the Mopan Maya of southern Belize. Professional Geographer 50: pp. 407-417 CrossRef
- Steinberg, M.K. (2002) The globalization of a ceremonial tree: The case of cacao (Theobroma cacao) among the Mopan Maya. Economic Botany 56: pp. 58-65
- Stevenson A. 1987. Cocoa: fundamental report. E.F. Hutton Futures Division.
- Maya atlas: the struggle to preserve Maya land in southern Belize. North Atlantic Books, Berkeley, California, USA
- Vosti S.A., Gockowiski J. and Tomich T.P. 2003. Land-Use Systems at the Margins of Tropical Moist Forest: Addressing Smallholder Concerns in Cameroon, Indonesia, and Brazil. In: Palm C.A., Vosti S.A., Sanchez P.A. and Ericksen P.J. (eds), Slash and Burn: The Search for Alternatives, pp Columbia University Press, New York, New York, USA.
- Vosti S.A. and Reardon T. 1997. Introduction: The critical triangle of links among sustainability, growth, and poverty alleviation.. In: Vosti S.A. and Reardon T. (eds), Sustainability, Growth, and Poverty Alleviation: A Policy and Agroecological Perspective, Johns Hopkins University Press, pp 1–17.
- Vosti, S.A., Witcover, J., DeOliveira, S.J.M., Santos, J.C.D. Intensifying small-scale agriculture in the western Brazilian Amazon: Issues, implications, and implementation. In: Lee, D.R., Barrett, C.B. eds. (2001) Tradeoffs or Synergies?: Agricultural Intensification, Economic Development, and the Environment.. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, pp. 285-301
- Vosti S.A., Witcover J., Gockowiski J., Tomich T.P., Carpentier C.L., Faminow M., Oliveira S. and Diaw C. 2000. Alternatives to slash-and-burn agriculture programme. Working group on economic and social indicators: Report on methods for the ASB best bet matrix, Nairobi, Kenya, Africa.
- Land-use system modeling and analysis of shaded cacao production in Belize
Volume 64, Issue 2 , pp 117-129
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Graduate Student, International Agricultural Development Graduate Group, School of Human and Community Development, University of California, Davis, USA
- 2. Graduate Student, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Davis
- 3. Program Director, CARESDA, 2250, Belize City, Belize, Central America