Land-use system modeling and analysis of shaded cacao production in Belize
Received: 11 July 2002 Accepted: 21 May 2004 DOI:
Cite this article as: Rosenberg, D.E. & Marcotte, T.P. Agroforest Syst (2005) 64: 117. doi:10.1007/s10457-004-0535-9 Abstract
Shaded cacao (Theobroma cacao) cultivation is a tropical land-use that has potential to reduce pressure on the forest and provide additional income to smallholder growers. A land-use system (LUS) model was formulated to represent the economic returns derived from shaded cacao production practiced by smallholders in the Toledo district of Belize. Sixty scenarios were tested to elicit response of net-present-value (NPV), returns to labor, and annual returns to land (ARTL) to individual changes in 10 system parameters. Further scenarios tested the combined interactions between hardwood shade tree type, planting density, time to harvest hardwoods, cacao cultivation practice, and expected output. As a modeling exercise, LUS analysis highlights system components that government agencies, donors, NGOs, extension agents, and smallholders should target with policies, agri-silvi- culture projects, and further research. Results identify more favorable credit, labor-saving technology, better shade-management practices, grafting, and incorporating non-hardwood shade trees and laurel (Cordia alliadora) as interventions that could improve cacao financial performance and encourage adoption. At present, the model cannot predict whether smallholders would respond to recommendations and invest in shaded cacao cultivation in lieu of alternative agricultural land-uses or off-farm employment.
Keywords Cocoa Fair trade Organic Sensitivity analysis References Beer, J., Muschler, R., Kass, D., Somarriba, E. 1998 Shade management in coffee and cacao plantations Agroforestry Systems 38 139 164 Google Scholar Browder, J.O., Matricardi, E.A.T., Abdala, W.S. 1996 Is sustainable tropical timber production financially viable? A comparative. Ecological Economics-Amsterdam 16 147 159 Google Scholar Duguma, B., Gockowski, J., Bakala, J. 2001 Smallholder cacao (Theobroma cacao Linn.) cultivation in agroforestry systems of West and Central Africa: challenges and opportunities Agroforestry Systems 51 177 188 CrossRef Google Scholar Emch, M. 2003 The human ecology of Mayan cacao farming in Belize Human Ecology 31 111 131 CrossRef Google Scholar Glor, R.E., Flecker, A.S., Benard, M.F., Power, A.G. 2001 Lizard diversity and agricultural disturbance in a Caribbean forest landscape. Biodiversity and Conservation 10 711 723 CrossRef Google Scholar
IMF. 2002. Belize: Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix. http:// www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/scr/2001/cr01151.pdf (Accessed February 2002).
Jaramillo, C.F., Kelly, T. 1999 Deforestation and property rights Keipi, K. eds. Forest Resource Policy in Latin America. Inter-American Development Bank Washington, DC, USA 111 134 Google Scholar Johns, N.D. 1999 Conservation in Brazil’s chocolate forest: the unlikely persistence of the traditional cocoa agroecosystem Environmental Management 23 31 47 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar
Laird S.A., Obialor C. and Skinner E.A. 1996. An introductory handbook to cocoa certification: A feasibility study and regional profile of West Africa. Rainforest Alliance, New York. ww- w.rainforest-alliance.org.
Levasseur, V., Oliver, A. 2000 The farming system and traditional agroforesty systems in the Maya community of San Jose, Belize Agroforesty Systems 49 275 288 Google Scholar Macilwain, C. 1998 When rhetoric hits reality in debate on bio- prospecting Nature 392 535 540 PubMed Google Scholar Mayhew, J.E., Newton, A.C. 1998The silviculture ofmahogan. CAB International Wallingford, UK Google Scholar Ostuka, K., Place, F. 2001 Land tenure and the management of land and trees: A comparative study of Asia and Africa Lee, D.R. Barrett, C.B. eds. Tradeoffs or Synergies?: Agricultural Intensification, Economic Development, and the Environment. CAB International Wallingford, UK 285 301 Google Scholar Ramirez, O.A., Somarriba, E., Ludewigs, T., Ferreira, P. 2001 Financial returns, stability and risk of cacao-plantain-timber agroforestry systems in Central America Agroforestry Systems 51 141 154 Google Scholar Rice, R.A., Greenberg, R. 2000 Cacao cultivation and the conservation of biological diversity Ambio 29 167 173 Google Scholar Ruf, F. 1998Cocoa: from deforestation to reforestation First International Sustainable Cocoa Workshop Panama City, Panama Google Scholar
Sams G. 2001. Sustainable chocolate: A practical business example. Ecology and Farming January-April: 26–28.
Steinberg, M. 1998 Political ecology and cultural change: impacts on swidden-fallow agroforestry practices among the Mopan Maya of southern Belize Professional Geographer 50 407 417 CrossRef Google Scholar Steinberg, M.K. 2002 The globalization of a ceremonial tree: The case of cacao (Theobroma cacao) among the Mopan Maya Economic Botany 56 58 65 Google Scholar
Stevenson A. 1987. Cocoa: fundamental report. E.F. Hutton Futures Division.
Toledo Maya Cultural Council and Toledo Alcaldes Association (TMCC, and TAA) 1997Maya atlas: the struggle to preserve Maya land in southern Belize North Atlantic Books Berkeley, California, USA Google Scholar
Vosti S.A., Gockowiski J. and Tomich T.P. 2003. Land-Use Systems at the Margins of Tropical Moist Forest: Addressing Smallholder Concerns in Cameroon, Indonesia, and Brazil. In: Palm C.A., Vosti S.A., Sanchez P.A. and Ericksen P.J. (eds), Slash and Burn: The Search for Alternatives, pp Columbia University Press, New York, New York, USA.
Vosti S.A. and Reardon T. 1997. Introduction: The critical triangle of links among sustainability, growth, and poverty alleviation.. In: Vosti S.A. and Reardon T. (eds), Sustainability, Growth, and Poverty Alleviation: A Policy and Agroecological Perspective, Johns Hopkins University Press, pp 1–17.
Vosti, S.A., Witcover, J., DeOliveira, S.J.M., Santos, J.C.D. 2001 Intensifying small-scale agriculture in the western Brazilian Amazon: Issues, implications, and implementation Lee, D.R. Barrett, C.B. eds. Tradeoffs or Synergies?: Agricultural Intensification, Economic Development, and the Environment. CAB International Wallingford, UK 285 301 Google Scholar
Vosti S.A., Witcover J., Gockowiski J., Tomich T.P., Carpentier C.L., Faminow M., Oliveira S. and Diaw C. 2000. Alternatives to slash-and-burn agriculture programme. Working group on economic and social indicators: Report on methods for the ASB best bet matrix, Nairobi, Kenya, Africa.