RETRACTED ARTICLE: Gold nanoparticles inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis and vascular permeability via Src dependent pathway in retinal endothelial cells
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- Kalishwaralal, K., Sheikpranbabu, S., BarathManiKanth, S. et al. Angiogenesis (2011) 14: 29. doi:10.1007/s10456-010-9193-x
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of gold nanoparticles on the signaling cascade related to angiogenesis and vascular permeability induced by Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) in Bovine retinal endothelial cells (BRECs). The effect of VEGF and gold nanoparticles on cell viability, migration and tubule formation was assessed. PP2 (Src Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor) was used as the positive control and the inhibitor assay was performed to compare the effect of AuNPs on VEGF induced angiogenesis. The transient transfection assay was performed to study the VEGFR2/Src activity during experimental conditions and was confirmed using western blot analysis. Treatment of BRECs with VEGF significantly increased the cell proliferation, migration and tube formation. Furthermore, gold nanoparticles (500 nM) significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration and tube formation, in the presence of VEGF in BRECs. The gold nanoparticles also inhibited VEGF induced Src phosphorylation through which their mode of action in inhibiting angiogenic pathways is revealed. The fate of the gold nanoparticles within the cells is being analyzed using the TEM images obtained. The potential of AuNPs to inhibit the VEGF165-induced VEGFR-2 phosphorylation is also being confirmed through the receptor assay which elucidates one of the possible mechanism by which AuNPs inhibit VEGF induced angiogenesis. These results indicate that gold nanoparticles can block VEGF activation of important signaling pathways, specifically Src in BRECs and hence modulation of these pathways may contribute to gold nanoparticles ability to block VEGF-induced retinal neovascularization.