Observations on the use of membrane filtration and liquid impingement to collect airborne microorganisms in various atmospheric environments
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
The influence of sample-collection-time on the recovery of culturable airborne microorganisms using a low-flow-rate membrane-filtration unit and a high-flow-rate liquid impinger were investigated. Differences in recoveries were investigated in four different atmospheric environments, one mid-oceanic at an altitude of ~10.0 m, one on a mountain top at an altitude of ~3,000.0 m, one at ~1.0 m altitude in Tallahassee, Florida, and one at ~1.0 m above ground in a subterranean-cave. Regarding use of membrane filtration, a common trend was observed: the shorter the collection period, the higher the recovery of culturable bacteria and fungi. These data also demonstrated that lower culturable counts were common in the more remote mid-oceanic and mountain-top atmospheric environments with bacteria, fungi, and total numbers averaging (by sample time or method categories) <3.0 colony-forming units (CFU) m−3. At the Florida and subterranean sites, the lowest average count noted was 3.5 bacteria CFU m−3, and the highest averaged 140.4 total CFU m−3. When atmospheric temperature allowed use, the high-volume liquid impinger utilized in this study resulted in much higher recoveries, as much as 10× greater in a number of the categories (bacterial, fungal, and total CFU). Together, these data illustrated that (1) the high-volume liquid impinger is clearly superior to membrane filtration for aeromicrobiology studies if start-up costs are not an issue and temperature permits use; (2) although membrane filtration is more cost friendly and has a ‘typically’ wider operational range, its limits include loss of cell viability with increased sample time and issues with effectively extracting nucleic acids for community-based analyses; (3) the ability to recover culturable microorganisms is limited in ‘extreme’ atmospheric environments and thus the use of a ‘limited’ methodology in these environments must be taken into account; and (4) the atmosphere culls, i.e., everything is not everywhere.
- Agranovski, I. E., Safatov, A. S., Borodulin, A. I., Pyankov, O. V., Petrishchenko, V. A., Sergeev, A. N., et al. (2004). Inactivation of viruses in bubbling processes utilized for personal bioaerosol monitoring. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 70, 6963–6967. CrossRef
- Agranovski, I. E., Safatov, A. S., Pyankov, O. V., Sergeev, A. A., Sergeev, A. N., & Grinshpun, S. A. (2005). Long-term sampling of viable airborne viruses. Aerosol Science and Technology, 39, 912–918. CrossRef
- Bergman, W., Shinn, J., Lochner, R., Sawyer, S., Milanovich, F., Jr., & Mariella, R. (2005). High volume, low pressure drop, bioaerosol collector using a multi-slit virtual impactor. Journal of Aerosol Science, 36, 619–638. CrossRef
- Buttner, M. P., Willeke, K., & Grinshpun, S. A. (1997). Sampling and analysis of airborne microorganisms. In C. J. Hurst, G. R. Knudsen, M. J. McInerney, L. D. Stetzenbach, & M. V. Walter (Eds.), Manual of environmental microbiology (pp. 629–640). Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology Press.
- Dowd, S. E., & Maier, R. M. (2000). Aeromicrobiology. San Diego: Academic Press.
- Dufrene, Y. F. (2000). Direct characterization of the physicochemical properties of fungal spores using functionalized AFM probes. Biophysical Journal, 78, 3286–3291. CrossRef
- Dytham, C. (1999). Choosing and using statistics, a biologist’s guide. Oxford: Blackwell Science.
- Gorbushina, A. A., Kort, R., Schulte, A., Lazarus, D., Schnetger, B., Brumsack, H. J., et al. (2007). Life in Darwin’s dust: intercontinental transport and survival of microbes in the nineteenth century. Environmental Microbiology, 9, 2911–2922. CrossRef
- Gregory, P. H. (1961). The microbiology of the atmosphere. London: Leonard Hill Books Ltd.
- Griffin, D. W. (2004). Terrestrial microorganisms at an altitude of 20,000 m in earth’s atmosphere. Aerobiologia, 20, 135–140. CrossRef
- Griffin, D. W. (2007a). Atmospheric movement of microorganisms in clouds of desert dust and implications for human health. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 20, 459–477. CrossRef
- Griffin, D. W. (2007b). Non-spore forming eubacteria isolated at an altitude of 20,000 m in earth’s atmosphere: extended incubation periods needed for culture-based assays. Aerobiologia, 24, 19–25. CrossRef
- Griffin, D. W., Garrison, V. H., Herman, J. R., & Shinn, E. A. (2001). African desert dust in the Caribbean atmosphere: microbiology and public health. Aerobiologia, 17, 203–213. CrossRef
- Griffin, D. W., Kellogg, C. A., Garrison, V. H., Lisle, J. T., Borden, T. C., & Shinn, E. A. (2003). African dust in the Caribbean atmosphere. Aerobiologia, 19, 143–157. CrossRef
- Griffin, D. W., Westphal, D. L., & Gray, M. A. (2006). Airborne microorganisms in the African desert dust corridor over the mid-Atlantic ridge, Ocean Drilling Program, Leg 209. Aerobiologia, 22, 211–226. CrossRef
- Honrath, R. E., Owen, R. C., Marti’n, M. V., Reid, J. S., Lapina, K., Fialho, P., et al. (2004). Regional and hemispheric impacts of anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions on summertime CO2 and O3 in the North Atlantic lower free troposphere. Journal of Geophysical Research, 109. doi:10.1029/2004JD005147.
- Jensen, P. A., Lighthart, B., Mohr, A. J., & Shaffer, B. T. (1994). Instrumentation used with microbial bioaerosol. In B. Lighthart & A. J. Mohr (Eds.), Atmospheric microbial aerosols: theory and applications (pp. 226–284). New York, NY: Chapman and Hall.
- Keleman, P. B., Kikawa, E., Miller, D. J., Abe, N., Bach, W., Carlson, R. L., et al. (2004). Leg 209 summary. In Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Initial Reports—Leg 209. College Station, TX: Ocean Drilling Program, pp. 1–139.
- Kellogg, C. A., Griffin, D. W., Garrison, V. H., Peak, K. K., Royall, N., Smith, R. R., et al. (2004). Characterization of aerosolized bacteria and fungi from desert dust events in Mali, West Africa. Aerobiologia, 20, 99–110. CrossRef
- Koren, I., Kaufman, Y. J., Washington, R., Todd, M. C., Rudich, Y., Martins, J. V., et al. (2006). The Bodele depression: a single spot in the Sahara that provides most of the mineral dust to the Amazon forest. Environmental Research Letters, 1, 1–5. CrossRef
- Lin, X., Reponen, T., Willeke, K., Grinshpun, S. A., Foarde, K. K., & Ensor, D. S. (1999). Long-term sampling of airborne bacteria and fungi into a non-evaporating liquid. Atmospheric Environment, 33, 4291–4298. CrossRef
- Lin, X., Reponen, T., Willeke, K., Wang, Z., Grinshpun, S., & Trunov, M. (2000). Survival of airborne microorganisms during swirling aerosol collection. Aerosol Science and Technology, 32, 184–196. CrossRef
- Lin, X., Willeke, K., Ulevicius, V., & Grinshpun, S. (1997). Effect of sampling time on the collection efficiency of all-glass impingers. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 58, 480–488.
- Makino, S. I., Cheun, H. I., Watarai, M., Uchida, I., & Takeshi, K. (2001). Detection of anthrax spores from the air by real-time PCR. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 33, 237–240. CrossRef
- McFeters, G. A., Cameron, S. C., & LeChevallier, M. W. (1982). Influence of diluents, media, and membrane filter on detection of injured waterborne coliform bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 43, 97–103.
- Mohr, A. J. (1997). Fate and transport of microorganisms in air. Washington: ASM Press.
- Pasteur, L. (1861) Memoire sur les corpuscles organises qui existent dans l’atmosphere. Examen de la doctrine des generations spontanees. Annales des Sciences Naturelles—Zoologie et Biologie Animale 4 e ser., 16, 5–98.
- Prospero, J. M., Blades, E., Mathison, G., & Naidu, R. (2005). Interhemispheric transport of viable fungi and bacteria from Africa to the Caribbean with soil dust. Aerobiologia, 21, 1–19.
- Reasoner, D. J., & Geldreich, E. E. (1985). A new medium for the enumeration and subculture of bacteria from potable water. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 49, 1–7.
- Smith, D. J., Griffin, D. W., & Schuerger, A. C. (2009). Stratospheric microbiology at 20 km over the Pacific Ocean. Aerobiologia, 26(1), 35–46. CrossRef
- Terzieva, S., Donnelly, J., Ulevicius, V., Grinshpun, S. A., Willeke, K., Stelma, G. N., et al. (1996). Comparison of methods for detection and enumeration of airborne microorganisms collected by liquid impingement. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 62, 2264–2272.
- Tobin, R. S., Lomax, P., & Kushner, D. J. (1980). Comparison of nine brands of membrane filter and the most-probable-number methods for total coliform enumeration in sewage-contaminated drinking water. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 40, 186–191.
- Tyndall, J. (1882). Essays on the floating-matter of the air in relation to putrefaction and infection. New York and London: Johnson Reprint Corporation.
- Wang, Z., & Reponen, T. (2001). Effect of sampling time and air humidity on the bioefficiency of filter samplers for bioaerosol collection. Journal of Aerosol Science, 32, 661–674. CrossRef
- Wolf, F. T. (1943). The microbiology of the upper air. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 70, 1–14. CrossRef
- Yu, L., Wen, S., Li, J., Yang, W., Wang, J., Li, N., et al. (2009). Effects of different sampling solutions on the survival of bacteriophages in bubbling aeration. Aerobiologia. Online first: doi 10.1007/s10453-10009-19144-10454.
- Observations on the use of membrane filtration and liquid impingement to collect airborne microorganisms in various atmospheric environments
Volume 27, Issue 1 , pp 25-35
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer Netherlands
- Additional Links
- Membrane filtration
- Liquid impingement
- Author Affiliations
- 1. US Geological Survey, Geologic Discipline, 2639 North Monroe Street, Suite A200, Tallahassee, FL, 32303, USA
- 2. University of La Laguna, University Institute of Tropical Diseases and Public Health, Avda. Francisco Sanchez, 38271, La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain
- 3. US Geological Survey, Water Resources Discipline, 2639 North Monroe Street, Suite A200, Tallahassee, FL, 32303, USA
- 4. University of New Mexico, Biology, MSC03 2020, 1 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, 87131, USA
- 5. US Navy, Research Program Integration and Mission Development, Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, 2300 East Street, NW, Bldg 5, Washington, DC, 20372-5300, USA