The Relationship Between Subconcussive Impacts and Concussion History on Clinical Measures of Neurologic Function in Collegiate Football Players
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Concussions sustained during college and professional football careers have been associated with both acute and chronic neurologic impairment. The contribution of subconcussive impacts to this impairment has not been adequately studied. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between subconcussive impacts and concussion history on clinical measures of neurologic function. Forty-six collegiate football players completed five clinical measures of neurologic function commonly employed in the evaluation of concussion before and after a single season. These tests included the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics, Sensory Organization Test, Standardized Assessment of Concussion, Balance Error Scoring System, and Graded Symptom Checklist. The Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System recorded head impact data including the frequency, magnitude, and location of impacts. College football players sustain approximately 1,000 subconcussive impacts to the head over the course of a season, but for the most part, do not demonstrate any clinically meaningful changes from preseason to postseason on measures of neurologic function. Changes in performance were mostly independent of prior concussion history, and the total number, magnitude and location of sustained impacts over one season as observed R 2 values ranged between 0.30 and 0.35. Repetitive subconcussive head impacts over a single season do not appear to result in short-term neurologic impairment, but these relationships should be further investigated for a potential dose–response over a player’s career.
Supplementary Material (0)
- Bailey, C. M., R. J. Echemendia, and P. A. Arnett. The impact of motivation on neuropsychological performance in sports-related mild traumatic brain injury. J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc. 12:475–484, 2006. CrossRef
- Bleiberg, J., A. N. Cernich, K. Cameron, W. Sun, K. Peck, P. J. Ecklund, D. Reeves, J. Uhorchak, M. B. Sparling, and D. L. Warden. Duration of cognitive impairment after sports concussion. Neurosurgery 54:1073–1078, 2004. CrossRef
- Bleiberg, J., R. L. Kane, D. L. Reeves, W. S. Garmoe, and E. Halpern. Factor analysis of computerized and traditional tests used in mild brain injury research. Clin. Neuropsychol. 14:287–294, 2000. CrossRef
- Broglio, S. P., and T. W. Puetz. The effect of sport concussion on neurocognitive function, self-report symptoms and postural control: a meta-analysis. Sports Med. 38:53–67, 2008. CrossRef
- Cantu, R. C. Recurrent athletic head injury: risks and when to retire. Clin. Sports Med. 22:593–603, x, 2003.
- Cernich, A. N., D. Reeves, W. Sun, and J. Bleiberg. Automated neuropsychological assessment metrics sports medicine battery. Arch. Clin. Neuropsychol. 22S:S101–S114, 2007. CrossRef
- Crisco, J. J., R. Fiore, J. G. Beckwith, J. J. Chu, P. G. Brolinson, S. Duma, T. W. McAllister, A. C. Duhaime, and R. M. Greenwald. Frequency and location of head impact exposures in individual collegiate football players. J. Athl. Train. 45:549–559, 2010. CrossRef
- De Beaumont, L., H. Theoret, D. Mongeon, J. Messier, S. Leclerc, S. Tremblay, D. Ellemberg, and M. Lassonde. Brain function decline in healthy retired athletes who sustained their last sports concussion in early adulthood. Brain 132:695–708, 2009. CrossRef
- Delaney, J. S., and R. Frankovich. Head injuries and concussions in soccer. Clin. J. Sport Med. 15:216–219, 2005; discussion 212-3. CrossRef
- Duma, S. M., S. J. Manoogian, W. R. Bussone, P. G. Brolinson, M. W. Goforth, J. J. Donnenwerth, R. M. Greenwald, J. J. Chu, and J. J. Crisco. Analysis of real-time head accelerations in collegiate football players. Clin. J. Sport Med. 15:3–8, 2005. CrossRef
- Gessel, L. M., S. K. Fields, C. L. Collins, R. W. Dick, and R. D. Comstock. Concussions among United States high school and collegiate athletes. J. Athl. Train 42:495–503, 2007.
- Guskiewicz, K. M., M. McCrea, S. W. Marshall, R. C. Cantu, C. Randolph, W. Barr, J. A. Onate, and J. P. Kelly. Cumulative effects associated with recurrent concussion in collegiate football players: the NCAA Concussion Study. JAMA 290:2549–2555, 2003. CrossRef
- Guskiewicz, K. M., J. P. Mihalik, V. Shankar, S. W. Marshall, D. H. Crowell, S. M. Oliaro, M. F. Ciocca, and D. N. Hooker. Measurement of head impacts in collegiate football players: relationship between head impact biomechanics and acute clinical outcome after concussion. Neurosurgery 61:1244–1252, 2007. CrossRef
- Guskiewicz, K. M., N. L. Weaver, D. A. Padua, and W. E. Garrett, Jr. Epidemiology of concussion in collegiate and high school football players. Am. J. Sports Med. 28:643–650, 2000.
- Iverson, G. L., M. Gaetz, M. R. Lovell, and M. W. Collins. Cumulative effects of concussion in amateur athletes. Brain Inj. 18:433–443, 2004. CrossRef
- Lincoln, A. E., S. V. Caswell, J. L. Almquist, R. E. Dunn, J. B. Norris, and R. Y. Hinton. Trends in concussion incidence in high school sports: a prospective 11-year study. Am. J. Sports Med. 39:958–963, 2011. CrossRef
- McCrea, M. Standardized mental status testing on the sideline after sport-related concussion. J. Athl. Train. 36:274–279, 2001.
- McCrea, M., K. M. Guskiewicz, S. W. Marshall, W. Barr, C. Randolph, R. C. Cantu, J. A. Onate, J. Yang, and J. P. Kelly. Acute effects and recovery time following concussion in collegiate football players: the NCAA Concussion Study. JAMA 290:2556–2563, 2003. CrossRef
- McCrea, M., J. P. Kelly, J. Kluge, B. Ackley, and C. Randolph. Standardized assessment of concussion in football players. Neurology 48:586–588, 1997.
- McCrory, P. R. Brain injury and heading in soccer. BMJ 327:351–352, 2003. CrossRef
- McKee, A. C., R. C. Cantu, C. J. Nowinski, E. T. Hedley-Whyte, B. E. Gavett, A. E. Budson, V. E. Santini, H. S. Lee, C. A. Kubilus, and R. A. Stern. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in athletes: progressive tauopathy after repetitive head injury. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 68:709–735, 2009. CrossRef
- Mihalik, J. P., D. R. Bell, S. W. Marshall, and K. M. Guskiewicz. Measurement of head impacts in collegiate football players: an investigation of positional and event-type differences. Neurosurgery 61:1229–1235, 2007. CrossRef
- Miller, J. R., G. J. Adamson, M. M. Pink, and J. C. Sweet. Comparison of preseason, midseason, and postseason neurocognitive scores in uninjured collegiate football players. Am. J. Sports Med. 35:1284–1288, 2007. CrossRef
- Pellman, E. J., J. W. Powell, D. C. Viano, I. R. Casson, A. M. Tucker, H. Feuer, M. Lovell, J. F. Waeckerle, and D. W. Robertson. Concussion in professional football: epidemiological features of game injuries and review of the literature—part 3. Neurosurgery 54:81–94, 2004. CrossRef
- Pellman, E. J., D. C. Viano, A. M. Tucker, and I. R. Casson. Concussion in professional football: location and direction of helmet impacts-Part 2. Neurosurgery 53:1328–1340, 2003; discussion 1340-1. CrossRef
- Peterson, C. L., M. S. Ferrara, M. Mrazik, S. Piland, and R. Elliott. Evaluation of neuropsychological domain scores and postural stability following cerebral concussion in sports. Clin. J. Sport Med. 13:230–237, 2003. CrossRef
- Piland, S. G., R. W. Motl, K. M. Guskiewicz, M. McCrea, and M. S. Ferrara. Structural validity of a self-report concussion-related symptom scale. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 38:27–32, 2006. CrossRef
- Rabadi, M. H., and B. D. Jordan. The cumulative effect of repetitive concussion in sports. Clin. J. Sport Med. 11:194–198, 2001. CrossRef
- Riemann, B. L., N. A. Caggiano, and S. M. Lephart. Examination of a clinical method of assessing postural control during a functional performance task. J. Sport Rehabil. 8:171–183, 1999.
- Schnebel, B., J. T. Gwin, S. Anderson, and R. Gatlin. In vivo study of head impacts in football: a comparison of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I versus high school impacts. Neurosurgery 60:490–495, 2007; discussion 495-6. CrossRef
- Shankar, P. R., S. K. Fields, C. L. Collins, R. W. Dick, and R. D. Comstock. Epidemiology of high school, collegiate football injuries in the United States, 2005–2006. Am. J. Sports Med. 35:1295–1303, 2007. CrossRef
- Talavage, T. M., E. Nauman, E. L. Breedlove, U. Yoruk, A. E. Dye, K. Morigaki, H. Feuer, and L. J. Leverenz. Functionally-detected cognitive impairment in high school football players without clinically-diagnosed concussion. J. Neurotrauma, 2010.
- Valovich McLeod, T. C., D. H. Perrin, K. M. Guskiewicz, S. J. Shultz, R. Diamond, and B. M. Gansneder. Serial administration of clinical concussion assessments and learning effects in healthy young athletes. Clin. J. Sport Med. 14:287–295, 2004. CrossRef
- Valovich, T. C., D. H. Perrin, and B. M. Gansneder. Repeat administration elicits a practice effect with the balance error scoring system but not with the standardized assessment of concussion in high school athletes. J. Athl. Train. 38:51–56, 2003.
About this Article
- The Relationship Between Subconcussive Impacts and Concussion History on Clinical Measures of Neurologic Function in Collegiate Football Players
Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Volume 40, Issue 1 , pp 14-22
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer US
- Additional Links
- Concussion history
- Cumulative exposure
- Subconcussive impacts
- Mild traumatic brain injury
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Matthew A. Gfeller Sport-Related Traumatic Brain Injury Research Center, Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of North Carolina, 2207 Stallings-Evans Sports Medicine Complex, Campus Box 8700, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599-8700, USA
- 2. Campus Health Services, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
- 3. Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA